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KIN 3600

Lec 8-10

QuestionAnswer
to supply energy Acetly CoA Pyruvate Alphaketoglutarate Fumarate Oxaloacetate
to maintain blood glucose homeostasis Glucose-Alanine Cycle Deamination of amino-acids
Glucose-Alanine Cycle is the series of reactions in which amino groups and carbons from muscle are transported to the liver
To supply intermediaries for Krebs cycle 9-15 fold increase in krebs cycle intermediaries during exercise
Hormone-sensitive lipase breaks down triglycerides to glycerol and FAA
Hormone sensitive lipase inactivated by insulin lactic acid
Lipoprotein lipase Located in the capillary walls
Fats burn in protein flames in the skeletal muscle Krebs cycle intermediaries including OAA, are synthesized from amino-acid
Fats burning in protein flames underlining mechanism the Krebs interm are synthed from proteins and ^ interm in Krebs is important to utilize acetyl-CoA made from fat metabolism so, lower protein = lower concentration of Krebs interm which means lower capacity of the Krebs to handle CoA from fat metabolism
Fats burn in carbohydrate flames -In the Liver -Krebs cycle intermediaries are synthesized from pyruvaic acid. -Pyruvic acid is in chemical equilibrium with OAA
Fats burning in carbohydrate flames underlining mechamism Krebs interm are synthed from CHO, specially OAA which is equal with pyruvate. Lower CHO will decrease the concentration of pyruvates. Result, OAA will go back to pyruvates v OAA concentration in the Krebs. So, v Acetyl-CoA imbed oxidation of fats into K
prolonged exercise, low carbohydrate diet, or diabetes mellitus, may result in depletion of liver glycogen stores: v OAA and other intermediaries of Krebs Cycle - v entry of Acetyl-CoA during Beta Oxidation - incomplete oxidation of FFA -Acetyl-CoA generated during Beta oxidation o f fats is converted to Ketone bodies
Liver releases ketone bodies which are picked up by the muscle and heart and utilize energy transformation during prolonged exercise
uncontrolled diabetes the removal of Ketone bodies by the muscles and heart and excretion in urine may not be enough
accumulation of ketone bodies in blood decrease the pH which may result in coma and death
fuel during exercise affecting factors 1.Availability of substrates 2.Intensity of exercise (^intensity=^ CHO)
underlying mechanism of fuel during exercise high level of Acetly-CoA generated from carbohydrate mechanism inhibits the beta oxidation of Fatty Acyl-CoA in muscles by inhibiting the activity of beta oxidation
increased lactate in the muscles promotes formation of triglycerides from glycerol and FAA in the muscle - thus making FAA unavailable for oxidation in mitochondria
increased blood lactate concentration (anaerobic glycolysis) inhibits mobilization of FAA from adipose tissue - inhibits the activities of Hormone sensitive and lipoprotein lipase
the rate of glycolysis is much faster than the rate of lipolysis
Carbohydrates yield more ATP per unit oxygen utilized than fats
> duration of exercise > the contribution of fats to energy transformation
depletion of muscle and liver glycogen stores decreased rate of glycolysis - increased fat metabolism decreased muscle and blood lactate concentration - increase fat utilization in skeletal and fat mobilization from adipose tissue
Effect of exercise duration on fuel selection -Longer duration = more fats used -Longer duration = Less CHO used
Short maximal burst of exercise lasting > 3secs - high jump all energy supplied through the hydrolysis of ATP
Maximal intensity of short duration lasting 8-10 sec (100m) 55% Anaerobic 4% ATP 5% aerobic
Maximal intensity lasting 30-60 sec (200-400m) 50% Anaerobic 30% aerobic 20% ATP
Heavy exercises of short duration lasting 1-3 mins (400-1500m) most energy supplied through aerobic and anaerobic glycogenolysis (depends on distance) <10% ATP
Heavy exercise lasting 3-40 mins 60-80% aerobic 20-40% anaerobic 5-10% fats supplied
Heavy exercise lasting 40-150 mins mostly Aerobic only 25% fats
Heavy exercising leading more than 150mins small fat contribution in beginning progressively increasing up to 50% towards end of exercise
very long duration exercises lasting more than several hours 90% fats
Crossover concept Exercise intensity which 50% supplied by fats and 50% energy CHO
lactate during exercise can be used a s a fuel source in the same skeletal muscle that produces it - MCT1 (maonocarboxylzte Transporter 1)
in mitochondria lactate is used to get dehydrogenated to pyruvate by NAD - concerted to Acetly-CoA - used in krebs
Glucogeneogenesis sy thesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources
Cori Cycle The metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is metabolized back to lactate
Cori Cycle underlying mechanism Glucose metabolized to lactate in the muscle. Lactate diffuses into the circulation, liver picks it up. Dehydrogenous lactate convert to pyruvate. 6ATP utilized to convert pyruvate to glucose. Glucose releases into the circulation. Muscle picks up glucose
70% of lactate is oxidized through used another substrate by the heart and skeletal muscles 20% converted to glucose in liver 10% converted to amino acids
lactic acid is more easily removed with light exercise compared to passive rest during exercise
The main adaptations to short duration high intensity training lasting less than 8 to 10 seconds, such as sprint training 25% ATP stores 40% CP stores -increased duration = top speed can be maintained -however top speed will remain the same
Increased activity of ATPase, MK, and CPK 30% ATPase3 20% MK 36% CPK -increased top speed
Main adaptations to short duration high intensity trainĀ­ing (efforts lasting up to 20 to 60 sec) are -Increased muscular Glycogen concentration -increased duration the top speed can be maintained -Top speed will remain same
Increased activity of key glycolytic enzymes 83% PFK activity -increase top speed
The main adaptations to endurance training are ^26% myoglobin ^ number 120% and size 40% of mitochondria ^ 40% TCA & ETC ^ glycogen storage by 2.5 times ^ fatty acids utilized
Five months of heavy weight training resulted in: -28 % increase in strength -5.1 % increase in CP concentration -35.2 % increase in Creatine concentration -17.8 % increase in ATP concentration -32 % increase in Muscle Glycogen concentration
Doppler effect an increase (or decrease) in the frequency of sound, light, or other waves as the source and observer move toward (or away from) each other
Created by: rmart11