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Immune System part 2

Define Resistance natural or acquired ability to maintain immunity
What are the 2 categories of defenses? Innate or NONSPECIFIC immunity Adaptive or SPECIFIC immunity
Why are innate cells also called nonspecific? because they do not distinguish one type of threat from another/responds the same to all pathogens
Why are Adaptive cells also called specific? because they're remembered responses (when your body responds to a pathogen the first time, it fights it and then it remembers it in the form of a created ANTIBODY for next time )
Which kind of cells do mom give you for immunity? innate/nonspecific
How do you get adaptive cells? EXPOSURE as you grow up
What type of cells do innate (non specific) immunity NKs natural killers
Adaptive (specific) immunity relies on what three things? T cells B cells and Antibodies
Analogy for antibodies: like gigs on phone- you have 64 then you get older and it grows
2 types of exposure for adaptive immunity: accidental encounters (unintentional) immunizations
7 categories of innate/NONSPECIFIC immunity: Physical barriers Phagocytes Immune surveillance Interferons Complement Inflammatory response Fever
Examples of physical barriers: (one of the categories for nonspecific/innate immunity) outer layer of the skin hair epithelial layers of internal passageways secretions that flush away materials (sweat, mucous, urine) secretions that kill or inhibit microorganisms (enzymes, antibodies, or stomach acid)
Examples of Phagocytes: (one of the categories for nonspecific/innate immunity) microphages macrophages dendritic cells
What are microphages and how do they work? Neutrophils and Eosinophils leave the blood stream and enter peripheral tissues to fight infection
What are macrophages and how do they work? large phagocytic cells derived from monocytes can be either fixed or free begin roaming around damaged tissue
What are dendritic cells and how do they work? eat stuff and present antigens to T cells; best activators of adaptive immune cells
3 ways activated pathogens will respond to pathogens: Engulf pathogen and destroy it with lysosomal enzymes Bind to pathogen so other cells can destroy it Destroy pathogen by releasing toxic chemicals into interstitial fluid
fixed macrophages are also called what? histiocytes
what 3 places do fixed macs stay? dermis bone marrow subarachnoid space of meninges
2 types of special histiocytes: Microglia Kupffer cells
where are Microglia cells found? CNS/brain
Who are Microglia in the brain? janitors
What have microglia been found to be the problem in causing? OCD- knockout mice (born without gene for microglia- eradiated the mice and injected them with cells to cause microglia to form in the brain and the OCD went away) + neuroinflammation
where are Kupffer cells? found in liver sinusoids
Another name for free macrophages: wandering macrophages
What do free macrophages do? travel through the bloodstream and leave it to arrive at site in tissue
type of special free macrophages: Alveolar macrophages
Describe Alveolar macrophages: phagocytic dust cells that monitor gas exchange surfaces for pathogens
Alveolar macrophages are trying to prevent what by being the what of the lungs? pneumonia by being microglia of the lungs
what is chemotaxis? the way all macrophages are attracted or repelled by chemicals in surrounding fluids
another name for emigration: diapedesis
What is emigration/diapedesis? the way all macrophages move through capillary walls (leave the road and go up into the yard)
Define Adhesion: when phagocyte attaches to target
What happens after adhesion? surrounds pathogen with vesicle
What is the final step to a macrophages job- the actual "phagocytosis:" engulfs the pathogen and attaches it inside to a lysosome or peroxisome that is full of digestive chemicals
What type of defense is the immune surveillance? Non-specific defense
What are natural killer cells? Lymphocytes that constantly monitor for abnormal antigens on the cells surface.
Who out of the three following has the fastest immune response: why? T cell, B cell, NK cell NK cell because it doesn't have to check before it kills something... it simply will attack it if its an antigen of some sort
What organelle do NKs use and how? Golgi apparatus; swings it around, and points at antigen before shooting stuff out of the cell to kill the antigen
What part of Golgi Apparatus releases what to shoot at/kill the abnormal cell? vesicles shoot out perforins/release granzymes ("granular enzymes")
Perforins do what? punches huge holes in pathogen's plasma membrane
Granzyme does what? enters through holes and triggers apoptosis
Who attacks cancer? NK cells
Who attacks cells infected by viruses? NK cells
Cancer cells have what that attract/tell NK cells to attack? tumor specific antigens
Describe immunological escape involving cancer cells: cover up tumor specific antigens so NK cells can't find them (like what RHOGAM does with the RH antigens for the baby's positive blood to keep the mama's antibodies/anti-monkey spray from attacking)
Explain the immunological response to viruses: Viruses can multiply inside cells where NK cells can't reach them; however-INFECTED CELLS PRESENT THE VIRUSES ANTIGEN ON THE CELL MEMBRANE (warning to other cells + kill me flag). This allows NK cells to I.D. them as abnormal and destroy that cell
What are interferons? Small proteins RELEASED BY activated lymphocytes and macrophages, and by tissue cells infected with viruses
Where do interferons bind and what do they do? Bind to normal cells causes cell to produce antiviral proteins that interfere with viral replication in that cell
What are cytokines? Chemical messengers released by tissue cells to coordinate local activities and act as chemical messengers (either paracrine or hormone)
Analogy for cytokines: cell phone call to tell NK cells come get me
Interferons are a type of what? cytokines
Under the compliment system, the plasma contains how many compliment proteins? 30
The compliment system is analogous to what? National guard (w/ 30 divisions)- there when you need them in the background
What is a compliment protein? a protein that comes along in a sequence- a protein that has a number on it that if you get enough of them together, you can have 1 of 3 effects.....
2 pathways of the compliment system (ways to get these proteins together): Classical pathway Alternative pathway
What pathway of the compliment system is faster? classical pathway
Under the classical pathway, once you get enough of these proteins together, what happens? Inactive C3 protein is converted into an activated C3b protein
3 end results of following the classical or the alternative pathway? pore formation and lysis, opsonization, and histamine release
Another way for Alternative pathway: properdin pathway (pro is slow)
Which pathway does NOT have antibodies to tell them "here's the thing?" Alternative
If no antibodies are available, what happens? several complement proteins interact with the plasma
In the alternative pathway, which compliment proteins interact with the plasma Properdin (factor P), factor B, and factor D
Under the Alternative pathway, once you get enough of these proteins together, what happens? Conversion of inactive C3 to activated C3 b protein
What happens during pore formation and lysis? When activated C3b attaches, a Membrane Attack complex (MAC) is formed to destroy the membrane of the target
Do you need one or many C3b proteins to form a Membrane Attack Complex? many (all hold hands and drill a hole together)
What happens during opsonization? Dump all C proteins and Antibodies on the cell- "orange paint" on the infected cell so that macrophage can come get it (Optimizes a macs ability to ID infected cell)
Why is Histamine release a helpful pathway response? Mast cells and Basophils do this to increase inflammation and therefore increase blood supply to a region; Histamine release also calls more leukocytes
Another name for inflammation: Inflammatory response
What is inflammation? a localized response to tissue injury
5 clinical features of inflammation: 1-Redness 2-Swelling 3-Pain 4-Heat 5-Loss of Function
Fancy term for redness: Erythema
Fancy term for swelling: edema
Fancy term for pain: algesia
Fancy term for heat: febrile/thermo
Latin for redness: rubor
Latin for swelling: tumor
Latin for pain: dolor
Latin for heat: calor
Latin for loss of function: functio laesa
3 effects of inflammation: Temporary repair and barrier against pathogens Retards spread of pathogens into surrounding areas Mobilization of local and systemic defenses and facilitation of repairs (regeneration)
5 steps in tissue repair: 1- Tissue Damage 2- Mast cell activation 3-Cardinal signs and symptoms 4- Phagocyte attraction 5-Tissue repair
What happens during tissue damage causes chemical change in interstitial fluid
Mast cell activation causes the release of what two things: Histamine and Heparin
What is the main Phagocyte attracted during step three: Neutrophil (1st responder)
What things happen during/as a result of Phagocyte attraction: Release of cytokines to call others for help Removal of debris by neutrophils and macrophages (2nd responders) Stimulation of fibroblasts to begin repair Activation of specific defenses (B and T cells)
What happens during tissue repair? pathogen removal, clot erosion, scar formation
Difference between signs and symptoms: Patient comes in with symptoms, and doctor/nurse writes down signs
If lab values 30 and 60 are inverted, what kind of infection is present? viral infection
What is Necrosis? Local tissue destruction in area of injury Due to lysosomes releasing digestive enzymes that destroy injured cells and attack surrounding tissue
What is pus made of? dead neutrophils + their targets
What is an abscess? pus accumulated in an enclosed tissue space
Things that cause fevers are called what? pyrogens
Fever is a body temperature above what? 99 degrees F
During a fever, what part of the body is in charge of raising the temperature? Hypothalamus
Why do you shiver when getting a fever? trying to raise the setpoint to make it uncomfortable for the bad stuff
What happens when fever goes down? Hypothalamus turns the setpoint down and thus you sweat to cool body down
What is Tumor Necrosis Factor released by? (TNF) macrophages
What does TNF do? the signal to the hypothalamus to raise the temperature and thus cause fever
Created by: smhoffman



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