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vessels part 2

who causes blood to get out of the heart? the heart itself
why does blood flow? differences in pressure between two structures
when blood flows away from the heart what happens? blood pressure decreases until in vena cava (about 1mm Hg)
the greater the pressure resistance (btw 2 points)... the greater the flow
the more resistance the blood meets.... the slower the flow
you need to consider both what two things: blood pressure and resistance (when cold, more resistance so bp maybe lower...)
meaning for abbreviation F + what F is: Flow; degree of a motion in the blood vessel
meaning for abbreviation P + what P is: Blood pressure; force exerted by blood against vessel wall
what is P generated by? heart overcoming resistance from pulmonary and systemic circuits
meaning of R + what R is: Resistance aka peripheral resistance; opposition to blood flow from friction or constriction
What does F α ΔP/R mean? flow is proportional to the difference in pressure divided by resistance
What three pressures affect blood flow? Blood pressure, Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure (CHP), and venous pressure
blood pressure is proportional to what pressure? Atrial pressure
Blood pressure should be what: 120/80
circulatory pressure must overcome what? total peripheral resistance (of entire cardiovascular system)
do arteries or veins have the highest resistance and highest gradient? what is this difference? arteries; 85 mm Hg
the biggest difference in pressure is found where? by the heart and in the peripheral capillary beds
the cardiovascular system can change the pressure gradient and thus the rate of capillary flow how? by adjusting C.O. and peripheral resistance
Explain how pressure gradient and balance work: HEART ALWAYS HAS TO WIN;Pressure in arterioles and arteries of kidneys must be higher than in the capillaries and veins of the kidney
hypotension pressure is too low leaving the heart; filtration will not occur
hypertension pressure is too high leaving the heart; capillary walls will burst (runs over a slow kid)
3 ways to change the speed of blood throw (stop signs speed bumps and slow children at play signs): friction blood viscosity turbulence
When you change friction levels where is this occurring? between blood and vessel walls
friction depends on what two things: vessel length and diameter (make more blood touch the wall slows it down)
How blood viscosity is increased: dehydration or the person has a lot of stuff dissolved in their blood
what is turbulence: swirling motion that disrupts smooth flow of a liquid
what is an example of turbulence: rock in a river... equivalent to a plaque in a vessel
systole should be at.... 120 mm mercury
Diastole should be at.... 80 mm mercury
How to calculate pulse pressure: difference between systole and diastole (120/80=40)
what is mean arteriole pressure? diastolic + 1/3 of pulse pressure
Average pressure in the aorta throughout the cardiac cycle is... 85 mm Hg
MAP is abbreviation for.... mean arteriole pressure
3 factors that affect blood pressure: cardiac output, blood volume, and resistance
how to increase CO: exercise
in you increase CO, you what blood pressure? increase blood pressure
if you decrease CO, you what blood pressure? decrease blood pressure
how do decrease blood volume: dehydration; hemorrhage
if you decrease blood volume, you what blood pressure? decrease blood pressure
if you increase blood volume, you what blood pressure? increase blood pressure
if you have greater resistance, describe its affect on blood flow and blood pressure: decrease in flow and increase in blood pressure
if you have lower resistance, describe its affect on blood flow and blood pressure: increase in flow and decrease in blood pressure
how to spell [sfig-moh-muh-nom-i-ter]: Sphygmomanometer
What is a Sphygmomanometer? blood pressure cuff
what artery do you measure blood pressure from? brachial
what does vasodilation cause? increased oxygen flow to cells and CO2 removal
during vasodilation what occurs? heat loss
venous return is what? the amount of blood arriving at the right atrium each minute
two things that help venous return: muscular compression of peripheral veins; respiratory pumps
how does muscular compression of peripheral veins work? compression of sk muscles pushes blood back to the heart via one way valves
describe how the respiratory pump works to change levels of venous return: in the thoracic cavity; inhaling decreases thoracic pressure which creates a vacuum in the right atrium whereas exhaling increases thoracic pressure causing blood to go into the right atrium
how does increasing the diameter of a blood vessel affect the flow? increases flow
why do capillaries have small diameter? decrease speed of flow and thus gives time to exchange
2 ways to get blood back to the heart that is deoxygenated: calf muscle (gastrocnemius) and respiratory trunk
who are the only blood vessels who permit the 2 way exchange of materials? capillaries
you want capillaries to have what pressure? 0
materials are moved across capillary walls via what three methods? diffusion filtration reabsorption
reabsorption is the result of what? osmotic pressure
BCOP stands for... what is it caused by? blood colloid osmotic pressure; suspended blood proteins that are too large to cross capillary walls
What is the protein that causes 80% of BCOP? Albumin
What is the opposing force to BCOP? hydrostatic pressure
BCOP pulls what where? fluids into capillaries
At the arteriole end of a capillary, fluid moves where? out of the capillary and into the interstitial fluid
At the venous end of a capillary, fluid moves where? into the capillary from the interstitial fluid
What is net filtration pressure? net hydrostatic pressure-net osmotic pressure (difference)
what is tissue perfusion? how much blood is in the area
tissue perfusion is affected by what three things: CO, BP, and peripheral resistance
cardiovascular regulation changes blood flow to specific regions how? without changing blood flow and blood pressure to vital organs
Created by: smhoffman



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