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The vessels Part 1

Arteries and veins that travel to together often share what? Name
what blood vessels are involved in systemic circulation? the ones that extend to and from the body's tissues
what blood vessels are involved in pulmonary circulation? the ones that come and go from the lungs for gas exchange
Blood vessels of the heart form what kind of system? closed-loop
True/false: blood vessels can bend/ change shape in accordance with the bodies needs? True
Arteries and veins run side by side with a _________ in a ________. nerve in a NAV complex
pulmonary trunk does what? carries blood from right ventricle into pulmonary circulation
Aorta does what? caries blood from left ventricle into systemic circulation
What are the smallest blood vessels responsible for the exchange of chemicals and gases out of blood? capillaries
Analogy for remembering how arteries and capillaries work... street going into more densely packed neighborhood (needs blood to slow down in front of house)
arteriole means what? baby artery
What do you call the area where the smallest arteries and the smallest veins meet? capillary bed
Do arteries or veins have more muscle? Why? Arteries have more muscle because they need to dilate and constrict to meet bodies needs
3 layers of blood vessels: Tunica intima (interna) Tunica media Tunica externa (adventitia)
this layer is made one cell thick of simple squamous endothelium tunica intima
this layer makes hormones tunica intima
which layer contains vasoconstrictors and vasodilators tunica intima
which layer is the contractile layer tunica media
which layer is tough and fibrous and won't let the cell break during contraction tunica externa
which layer has an internal elastic membrane? tunica intima
another name for tunica intima: tunica interna
another name for tunica externa: adventitia
which layer has an external elastic membrane? tunica media
anything above the kiddney's has a what? vasa vasorum
what veins and arteries feed the veins and arteries? vasa vasorum
what layers do the vasa vasorum feed? outer 2 layers
where does the inside layer get its oxygen and nutrients? the blood right in front of it
nickname for vasa vasorum "vessels of vessels"
vasa vasorum are implicated in the formation of what? atherosclerotic plaques
vessels that don't have vasa vasorum are _______ and therefore more prone to ________ thinner; aneurysm
Atheroma is what? plaque
What causes vasa vasorum to cause plaque? inflammation (WBCs)
Plaques don't occur where? veins
Plaques form where? between tunica intima and tunica media
plaques are made of what: macrophages that become foam cells
what happens above the renal arteries? plaque
what happens below the renal arteries? abdominal aortic aneurysm
what is an aneurysm? stretched weakened wall
how to think of an aneurysm: tear in wall paper with water poured behind it and t grows and can eventually break
most common cause of aneurysm: atherosclerosis + high blood pressure
most common sites for aneurysm: aorta, renal arteries, circle of Willis at base of brain
What is the result of rupture? massive hemorage
Are arteries or veins more elastic and contractile (vasodilation + vasoconstriction)? Arteries
Do arteries or veins have valves? Veins
Do arteries or veins need to withstand high amounts of pressure? Arteries
3 types or Arteries: 1-conducting 2-distributing 3-arterioles
describe conducting arteries: ELASTIC- TRYING TO GET STUFF FROM PT A TO PT B: largest and closest to the heart; contain large amounts of elastic fibers for expansion; Ex: aorta, subclavian, common carotid
describe distributing fibers: MUSCULAR SWISS CHEESE; LIMBS; medium sized & muscular; Ex: brachial, femoral, renal; **External elastic lamina behind tunica muscularis and internal elastic membrane behind tunica intima/adventitia
Describe Arterioles: SLOW BLOOD DOWN TO GO INTO NEIGHBORHOODS/B.P. SPEED REGULATION; SMALLEST; Resistance vessels because can resist flow of blood using smooth muscle contraction in their walls
What connects capillaries to arterioles? metarterioles
Do arteries or veins stretch out to be a large reservoir for extra blood in the body? veins
Do arteries or veins have thinner walls? veins
What does capacitance mean? veins are storage vessels for carrying blood
If BP drops, this type of vessel goes through extensive constriction in an effort to maintain bp: veins
3 types of veins 1-venules 2-Med sized veins 3-large veins
What is shock? a sudden drop in venous return/bp
Describe venules: POROUS; water and ion exchange; collect blood from capillaries; thin walls that are just a few endothelial cells
Which size vein has valves? medium
What do valves do? prevent backflow
Ex of medium sized veins: Radial and ulnar veins of forearm, great saphenous veins in legs
Describe large veins: CONVERGE ON HEART; thick tunica externa (fibrous) EX: Vena cavae, pulmonary veins, internal and external jugulars
Big word associated with capillaries: EXCHANGE
What are four things capillaries exchange? gas, hormones, nutrients, waste
Describe the size of capillaries: small diameter, only 1 blood cell passes through at a time
no cell in the body is more than _______ away from a capillary 4-6 cell widths
what areas of the body have no capillaries? epidermis; cartilage, and cornea
3 types o f capillaries: continuous, fenestrated, sinusoid
Describe continuous capillaries: only small ions (H20 and ions) and lipid soluble molecules through; prevent proteins and RBCs from escaping lumen** goal= keep stuff in until it needs ot be dropped off
Describe fenestrated capillaries: tiny pores (windows) in endothelial lining; permit fast exchange of water and large solutes
What type of capillaries are the most permeable? sinusoid
capillaries are most dense in what areas: areas that work really hard (high metabolic rate) or filter: liver, kidneys, heart
why no capillaries in cartilage? when you moved, you'd bleed- they're in constant contact with each other
why no capillaries in cornea? things constantly going into them
sinusoids allow what to pass through them? allow RBCs, WBCs, and serum (blood) proteins to pass through them
which type of capillary has an incomplete basement membrane? sinusoid
capillary beds are what? plexuses that connect arterioles to venules
capillary beds use what? microcirculation
what is microcirculation? circulation of the blood in the smallest blood vessels
where is microcirculation present? vasculature embedded within organ tissues
venous system contains what percentage of blood in circulation? 60-65%
where does hydrostatic pressure need to win and why? heart; because you need to be able to push out more O2 than the suction coming back in
where does osmotic pressure need to win and why? veins; because allow proteins and ions (Na) to pull water into the veins
Arteriovenous anastomoses direct connection between arterioles and venules that bypasses the capillary bed
vasomotion contraction and relaxation of capillary sphincters; causes blood flow in capillary beds to constantly change routes
angiogenesis formation of new blood vessels due to hypoxia (like in heart); uses vascular endothelial growth factor
4 things capillaries exchange: Glucose from liver Calcium from bones Antibodies from immune cells Hormones from endocrine glands
3 mechanisms of capillaries: diffusion, filtration, osmosis
what is the precapillary sphincter: band of muscle that adjusts blood flow
when does the precapillary sphincter open? during exercise- need more oxygen
what are thoroughfare channels? direct capillary connections between arterioles and venules
what are thoroughfare channels controled by? metarterioles (smooth muscle segments)
good way to remember anastomoses: when tumor has own blood supply; hallmark of cancer
which capillary mechanism transports gasses only? diffusion
Ex of diffusion capillary mechanism: oxygen to tissues and co2 into capillaries
what is another name for filtration? hydrostatic pressure
where does hydrostatic pressure occur? close to arteriole side of capillary beds
what does hydrostatic pressure do? higher pressure in capillaries pushes glucose, amino acids, and plasma out
describe osmotic pressure? attraction of water to rock stars
how does blood pressure affect filtration? if it pushes too hard, you get coffee grounds in the coffee, if it doesn't push hard enough, you don't get any coffee
is water organic or inorganic? inorganic (no carbon)
How does the cell use proteins and salts with water? to regulate it because H20 doesn't care about the cell
Albumin exerts what? colloidal osmotic pressure
What is colloidal osmotic pressure? pressure lets water be attracted to the inside of the vein
What is Edema? Too much water stuck out in the tissues
3 causes of Edema: Increased capillary filtration Reduced capillary reabsorption Obstructed lymphatic drainage
Examples of Increased capillary filtration: Right sided heart failure Kidney failure Venous Stasis
Examples of reduced capillary reabsorption: Albumin deficiency due to burns or liver disease (albumin made in the liver)
Examples of obstructed lymphatic drainage: Includes surgical removal of lymph due to disease (camcer)
What is the celiac artery associated with? digestion
Where do the renal arteries go? kidneys
What artery do you take BP in? brachial
What artery carries blood from the heart to the lungs? pulmonary artery
what vein carries blood from the lungs back to the heart? pulmonary vein
What arteries supply oxygenated blood to the heart? coronary arteries
what veins transport deoxygenated blood from the heart to the right atrium? coronary veins
what vein brings blood from the head back to the heart? jugular vein
what vein brings blood form your arm back to your heart? subclavian vein
what arteries bring oxygenated blood from the heart to the arms? subclavian artery
what arteries carry oxygenated blood to the intestines? Mesenteric artery
what system carries blood from intestines to the liver? hepatic portal system
What arteries supply the legs? Iliac arteries
What veins return deoxygenated blood from the legs to the heart? Iliac veins
Major artery that supplies blood to head and brain: carotid
giant arteries that run in the iliac fossa: iliac arteries
Where does the femoral artery run? down into tibia/fibula region (comes off iliac)
Internal carotid supplies: brain
External carotid supplies: face
where does vertebral artery go? through transverse foramen up spine and to brain
What two arteries meet in the circle of Willis? vertebral artery with carotid artery
if a patient has a stroke on the left, they're gonna have issues with what? motor and sensory on the Right side
stroke in basilar artery (part of circle of willis) can cause issues with... motion (pons- cerebellum)
vertebral artery feeds what? base of brain
posterior cerebral artery feeds(circle of willis) motor and sensory areas
anterior cerebral artery (circle of willis) stroke causes issues with what: personality, spatial awareness, planning, memory
internal jugular vein is associated with what? right sided heart failure
cephalic vein is associated with what? on arm and goes to head- put iv fluids in
median cubital fossa contains what? median cubital vein
when someone draws blood they're going into what? median cubital vein and drawing from median cubital fossa
where does great saphenous vein run? down leg
which vein can they remove and use for a graft if you need a coronary bypass? saphenous vein
what does the hepatic portal vein? vein that cleans the blood from the GI system in the liver and sends it to heart
where does the hepatic portal system receive blood from? from capillaries of spleen, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, and intestines
what does the liver do for the hepatic portal system? clean blood of glucose and store it as glycogen and cleans blood of toxins such as bacteria and alcohol
Created by: smhoffman



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