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Chapter 8

The Genetics of Bacteria and Their Viruses

What are some of the advantages of Bacteria and Viruses? 1. small, reproduce quickly, creates large populations 2. can be grown on culture media 3. simple structures and physiology 4. Genetic Variability is easy to detect
What do the nucleotide sequences of the genome provide about detailed information? genetic control of metabolism in diverse microbial species and about their evolutionary relationships
Why is the Tobacco Mosaic Virus not associated with living systems? 1. does not reproduce 2. does not develop 3. does not utilize energy 4. no response to environmental stimuli
What are bacteriophages? viruses that infect bacteria
What is a plaque? "hole" in a lawn of bacteria
Two types of Bacteriophages? Virulent and Temperant
Bacteriophage T4 large virus that stores its DNA in a capsule made of protein
Important components of the virus tail? - central hallow core= phage DNA injects to bacterium - tail sheath= pushes tail core through bacteria cell wall -six tail fibers= locate receptors on the host cell -tail pins= attack to receptors
Bacteriophage lambda smaller than T4 but life is more complex
What two pathways could circular alpha chromosome proceed? 1. lytic pathway= reproduces and encodes enzymes that lyse the host cell, just like phage T4. 2. lysogenic= it is inserted into the chromosome of the host bacterium and thereafter is replicated along with that chromosome.
Episomes are similar to plasmids, but episomes can replicate either autonomously or as part of the main chromosome—in an integrated state like the λ prophage.
What happens if bacteria is grown on semisolid medium? each bacterium will divide and grow exponentially, producing a visible colony on the surface of the medium.
True or False : any mutation that slows the growth rate of the bacterium will produce small or petite colonies. True
What are three distinct parasexual processes that occur in bacteria? 1. Transformation 2. Conjugation 3. Transduction
Transformation involves the uptake of free DNA molecules released from one bacterium (the donor cell) by another bacterium (the recipient cell).
Conjugation involves the direct transfer of DNA from a donor cell to a recipient cell
Transduction involves the transfer of genes from a donor bacterial cell to a recipient cell through the help of a bacteriophage
What are the two simple criterias that can distinguish parasexual processes? 1. Is the process sensitive to deoxyribonuclease (DNase), an enzyme that degrades DNA? 2. Does the process require cell contact?
two phenotypic characteristics of importance in Griffith’s demonstration of transformation 1. the presence or absence of a polysaccharide (complex sugar polymer) capsule surrounding the bacterial cells 2. the type of capsule—that is, the specific molecular composition of the polysaccharides present in the capsule
Created by: savepeople