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KIN 3600

glycolysis, Krebs, ETC

Hexokinase controls oxidation of glucose
Glycogen phosphorylate controls oxidation of glycogen
Mc Ardle Disease absence of phosphorylate -absence of gene
controls of anaerobic glycolytic enzymes activities Allosteric regulators
Positive modulators PFK = increase concentration of -ADP -Pi -Ca++ = switch that contracts muscle fibers
Negative modulators PFK = increase concentration… -ATP -CP -Citrate -FFA -v pH
What happens if we have no lactic acid? NAD cannot carry anymore hydrogen -Not able to come back (NAD) Helps high intensity level exercise which is needed for survival (20-60s of anaerobic exercise)
3 oxidizing agents NAD, FAD, OXYGEN
Formation of lactic acid NADH+H+ Get rid of hydrogen & pyruvic acid
Phosphofructokinase (PFK) positive modulators ADP , Pi, Ca++ , Cyclic AMP , ^pH
Phosphofructokinase (PFK) negative modulators ATP , CP, Citrate , FFA , v pH
Effect of decreased pH Inhibits the activity of most enzymes, especially PFK & phosphorylase – contributing to developing of fatigue
What happens if we have no lactic acid? NAD cannot carry anymore hydrogen - Not able to come back (NAD)
Glycerol-phosphate shuttle system (skeletal) NADH+H+ transfers its H+ s to mitochondrial FAD --> FADH2
Malate-Aspartate shuttle (cardiac only) NADH+H+ transfers its H+ atoms to mitochondrial NAD --> NADH+H+
Substrate level phosphorylation 2 mol ATP resynthesized in krebs cycle
Glucose 32 ATP
Glycogen 33 ATP 6 NADH 2 pyruvates Krebs 2x
where do pyruates diffuse? mitochondrial membrane -lose 2H
substrate level phosphorylation 2 Mol ATP re-synthesized in Krebs Cycle
Electron energy transport chain -Electrons removed from NADH & FADH are passed along series of cytochromes -FADH enters cytochrome pathway below NADH. -FADH bypasses one site of energy transfer -NADHH (2.5ATP) & FADH (1.5ATP) -H from NADH FADH = O2 from metabolic water
oxidation take away electrons
PFK - Phosphofrutokinase key rate limiting enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis (glycogenolysis)
oxidizing agents in mitocondria NAD - FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide)
ETC directly utilizes...? O2 as final electron acceptor
ETC rate limiting enzyme cytochrome oxidase
Chemiosomatic Hypothesis -Energy released from transfer is used to pump H+ from NADH&FADH across inner mitochondrial membrane into intramembranous space. -Accmulation H+ between inner&Outer membrane generates concentration & pH gradient across inner membrane.
Chemiosomatic enzyme pH gradient ATP Synthase
Resynthesized ATP in chemiosomatic hypothesis trans-locates from mitochondria to Cytoplasm by and enzyme ATP/ADP Translocase
ATP/ATP translocase requires energy to exchange ATP with ADP and Pi across the mitochondrial membrane
TAC rate limiting enzyme Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
TAC activated by ^ ADP, Pi, NADH+ , Ca++
TCA inactivated by ^ ATP, NADH+H+
ETC activated by ^ ADP, Pi
ETC inactivated by ^ ATP
Lipids Fats
Lipids energetic value 9 Kcal total = 110,000
Lipids CHO value 4 Kcal total = 2,000
Fat storage Adipose tissue & Skeletal muscle - both stores as triglycerides
oxidation of lipids breakdown tryglycerides in the muscle 1 glycerol : 3 FAA
Glycerol metabolism 19mol ATP in liver converted to glucose
Free Fatty acids activated by ATP --> AMP + 2Pi + E --> Fatty-Acyl-CoA
Carnitine Shuttle Fatty- Acyl- CoA transported unto mitochondria
Beta Oxidation break down of fats
18 carbon Fatty acids yield 147 mol ATP
16 carbon Fatty acids Yield 129 mol ATP
1 Mol glycerol through glycolysis + Krebs 19 mol ATP
3 mol of 18 carbon fatty acids through beta oxidation + Krebs 441 (147 ATP x 3mol)
1 mol glycerol + 3 mol of 18 carbon fatty acids total ATP yield 460 ATP (19 +441)
What is more efficient in energy supplied in terms of unit weight Fats
1 mol of any gas 22.4L
What is more efficient in energy supplied in terms of oxygen utilization Carbohydrates -14% less O2 used to resynthesize 1 mol ATP
Total energy in stearic acid 2,700 Kcal/Mol
well nourished individuals proteins supply about 2% of total energy required for exercise
prolonged exercise more than 2 hrs protein supply 5-15% total energy
deep starvation almost 100% of energy
Malnourished a d low carbohydrate diet protein supply significant larger amount of energy
During prolonged exercise proteins are used to supply energy to maintain blood glucose homeostasis to supply intermediaries for krebs
Created by: rmart11