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KIN 3600

Energy transformation

Exercise the most powerful challenge to homeostasis
what do stress proteins do? prevent cell damage - combat homeostatic disturbances which are in constant repair
fatigue failure to maintain the homeostatic disturbance during exercise
Thermodynamic - energetics General study of energy transformations
Bioenergetics A study of energy transformations in the biological systems - Viruses, bacteria
Energy capacity to do work ( to perform useful work)
work application of force through a direction
biological work any combination of all different types of work performed
power rate of work -measures how fast energy is being transformed chemical to mechanical energy
1st law of thermodynamics Energy can be neither CREATED or DESTROYED, it can only be converted from one form to another.
2nd law pf thermodynamics During the process of energy transformation the energy tends to go from the organized state to a state of disorder and randomness.
entropy a random disordered form of energy that cannot be used to do work – usually it is energy that escapes as heat during the process of energy transformation. (∆S) -ALWAYS ESCAPES AS HEAT
free energy the energy that is issued to do work (∆G)
enthalpy total change in energy (∆H)
exothermic out put energy -Heat reaction
endothermic input energy -No energy, system will not take place
exergonic reactions chemical reactions during which energy is liberated
endergonic reaction chemical reactions that will not take place until energy is taken
coupled reaction the energy released during exergonic reactions is used to drive endergonic reactions
activation energy the minimum amount of energy required to initiate an exergonic reaction at a fast rate
enzymes Proteins molecules that work as catalysts
catalysts substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction
acceleration the rate of reaction
Link exergonic and endergonic reactions – accelerate to rate of coupled reactions
mechanism of action acts like a lock and key (substrate) -Ex. 1 enzyme = 1 substrate
The mechanism of enzymatic action - Lower the requirement of activation energy - Reduces energy
Enzyme characteristics -Enzymes do not make the reactions to occur -Enzymes are not used up in a reaction -Enzymes cannot alter final outcome of a reaction -Each reaction may be catalyzed only by a specific enzyme
substrates chemical compound that under goes change during enzymatically catalyzed reaction
active site substrate binding site on enzyme
allosteric sites biding sites in enzymes for allosteric regulators (modulators)
temperature effect on catalytic Enzymes are proteins, too high of a temperature can case enzyme to cook/ be eliminated
optimum temperature the temperature at which the catalytic activity of an enzyme is the HIGHEST
Q10 Effect every 10°C ^ in temperature. The enzymes catalytic activity doubles & the rate of the chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes
Created by: rmart11