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The Heart

The Heart Part 1

QuestionAnswer
The Cardiovascular System consists of what three things: 1) A Pump (heart) 2) A Conducting System (blood vessels) 3) A Fluid Medium (Blood)
What is Cardiology? The study of the heart and related disorders
Where is the Mediastinum? Space between lungs and behind the sternum
Where is the Base? Broadest part, site of attachment on upper right
Where is the Apex? Pointed end of heart, at lower left and pointing left
Describe the Pericardium: Double-walled sac surrounding heart made of 2 layers
How many layers are in the heart wall? 3
How many chambers are in the heart? 4 hollow chambers
How many valves are there in the heart? 4
2 layers of the Pericardium: Which is outermost? 1) Fibrous (Outermost) 2)Searous
What is the job of the Fibrous Pericardium? Protects heart from overfilling
2 layers to serous pericardium: 1) Parietal membrane (lines inside of fibrous pericardium) 2) Visceral membrane (covers surface of heart)
What does the Pericardial cavity contain? What is its job? Serous fluid; reduce friction as the heart beats
3 layers of cardiac muscle: Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
what layer of the heart is the...Outermost layer of connective tissue on surface of heart Epicardium
What layer of the heart consists of multiple layers of cardiac muscle? Myocardium
What layer of the heart is the thickest? Myocardium
Which layer of the heart preforms the work? Myocardium
Which layer of the heart is on the inside and covers the valves? Endocardium
Which layer of the heart is made of squamous epithelium and is thus smooth? Endocardium
What does the Right Atrium do? collects blood from the systemic circuit
What does the Right Ventricle do? Pumps blood to pulmonary circuit
What does the Left Atrium do? Collects blood from the pulmonary circuit
What does the Left Ventricle do? Pumps blood to systemic circuit
Explain the pathway of blood into the Right Atrium: deoxygenated blood through Superior and Inferior Vena Cava delivers it to the Right Ventricle through tricuspid valve
Explain the pathway of blood into the Left Atrium: receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and sends to Left Ventricle through the Bicuspid valve
what is the wall separating the left and right atria called? interatrial septum
Main job of ventricles: Pumping
What is the Foramen Ovale? An opening through interatrial septum before birth that connects the 2 atria and turns into the fossa ovalis
Describe Trabeculae Carneae: muscular ridges on internal surface of right (and left) ventricle
Where is the moderator band? Right Ventricle
What is the moderator band? Part of the conducting system; in right ventricle
2 jobs of Papillary muscle: Attach chordae tendineae to floor of heart at apex Hold fast the chordae tendineae when the AV valves slam shut
2 jobs of chordae tendineae: Prevent valves from swinging open backwards and allowing blood to regurgitate into atria
Blood flow from the atriums to the ventricles can be described how? One Way
What are cusps or leaflets? flaps of tissue which seal together to make a valve
What are AV valves? The valves between the atriums and their ventricles
What are Semilunar valves? the valves that carry blood away from the heart to either the lungs or the body
2 AV valves: Tricuspid and Bicuspid
How many leaflets or cusps does the tricuspid valve have? 3
What is the function of the tricuspid valve? Prevents backflow from right ventricle to right atria
How many leaflets or cusps does the bicuspid valve have? 2
What is the function of the bicuspid valve? Prevents backflow from left ventricle to left atria
2 semilunar valves: Aortic and Pulmonary
What does the pulmonary semilunar valve do? Prevents backflow from pulmonary artery to right ventricle
What does the Aortic semilunar valve do? Prevents backflow from aorta to left ventricle
What are the "fibrous rings of the heart?" semi-rigid fibrous connective tissue encircling each valve
3 jobs of Cardiac skeleton: prevents stretching stabilizes valves Insulating barrier separating atria and ventricles (prevents stray electrical impulses)
Another name for the cardiac skeleton: fibrous ring
What happens during vascular insufficiency? Incompetent valve fails to prevent backflow during contraction Allows blood to regurgitate back into the chamber from which it was pumped
What is valvular stenosis? Stenotic valve is narrowed and causes the heart to strain
What is heart murmur? the SOUND of regurgitation (insufficiency) Turbulence of backflow due to incompetent or stenotic heart valves
What do vascular insufficiency, valvular stenosis, and heart murmur lead to? What is the solution? Heart failure- Replace with artificial or pig valves
What are responsible for the lub? closing of AV valves
What is responsible for the dub? closing of semilunar valves
Analogy for Auscultation of heart valves: All Patients Trust Me
Pathway of blood through the heart: Step 1 deoxygenated blood through Sup. and Inf. Vena cava into R Atrium
Pathway of blood through the heart: Step 2 R Atrium contracts when full and forces Tricuspid valve open allowing blood to flow into the R Ventricle
Pathway of blood through the heart: Step 3 Tricuspid snaps closed to prevent backflow
Pathway of blood through heart: Step 4 R ventricle contracts when full, forces pulmonary valve open
Pathway of blood through the heart: Step 5 After R ventricle empties, pulmonary valve snaps shut (S2) to prevent backflow into R ventricle
Pathway of blood through the heart: Step 6 Flow through the right side of the hear ends when.... Blood pumped upwards into R and L pulmonary arteries to lungs
Pathway of blood through the heart: Step 7 Newly oxygenated blood from lungs returns to heart via the four pulmonary veins attached to left atrium
Pathway of blood through the heart: Step 8 when L Atrium fills up, bicuspid/mitral valve opens and blood flows into the L Ventricle
Pathway of blood through the heart: Step 9 Mitral/Bicuspid valve snaps shut to prevent backflow into Left Atrium
Pathway of blood through the heart: Step 10 L Ventricle contracts strongly when full and pushes Aortic Semilunar valve to open
Pathway of blood through the heart: Step 11 Valve snaps shut to prevent backflow into left ventricle
Pathway of blood through the heart: Step 12 Blood pumped upward into aortic arch and is dispersed through the rest of the body
Describe Coronary circulation: The heart has its own circulatory system (a real heart to heart! :-)
Why does the heart need its own circulatory system? high demand for oxygen and nutrients
What is the main thing the coronary circulatory system supplies? L Ventricle
What are end arteries? Do not overlap with arteries coming from opposite direction. When injured, anything downstream of block gets no blood and dies.
What is the job of Coronary Arteries? deliver oxygenated blood to arteries
What is the job of Cardiac Veins? collect deoxygenated blood from myocardium
Right Coronary artery arises from ___, just above ____. It also travels in ___. Just under ____. Aorta on Right Aortic Semilunar Valve Right Coronary Sulcus Right Atrium
The Sinoatrial nodal artery supplies the : What Side of the heart is it on? Sinoatrial node (pacemaker of the heart) Right
Another name for Right Marginal Artery: What Side of the heart is it on? Acute marginal Artery Right
Another name for posterior Interventricular artery: What Side of the heart is it on? Posterior Descending Artery Right
Describe the Left Coronary Artery: Arises from the Aorta just above Aortic valve; is very short- splits very quickly into 2 arteries
What is it called when an artery splits into 2? bifurcates/splits
What artery is nicknamed the "widow maker?" Anterior Interventricular Artery
Another name for Anterior Interventricular Artery: Left Anterior Descending Artery
Describe Circumflex Artery: wraps/circles around back of the heart
Where does the Great Cardiac Vein come from? Arises from ANTERIOR surface along Interventricular Septum; travels in left coronary sulcus
what is the Coronary Sinus? end point for all cardiac veins that dumps deoxygenated blood into R Atrium
What is Coronary Artery Disease? Areas of partial or complete blockage of coronary circulation
What is Coronary Ischemia? Type of Coronary artery disease usually due to a fatty deposit called a plaque or a blood clot called a thrombus, which forms due to a ruptured plaque
What is the #1 cause of death in America? Coronary disease
What is Atherosclerosis? blocked or narrowed arteries due to build up of cholesterol or fatty deposits
What is Angina Pectoris? Temporary; spasm of blocked artery or heart demands more O2 than available (exertion). Ischemia + pain result. Stops with rest.
What is Myocardial Infarction? Blood flow completely blocked by fatty deposit or blood clot, resulting in death of myocardial cells in area fed by the blocked artery. Necrosis. Women less likely to survive first heart attack.
Most common cause of MI: Formation of a Thrombus on a Plaque
What is MI caused by the formation of a thrombus on a plaque called? coronary thrombosis
Difference in Symptoms for MI and Angina: with MI, the symptoms (same) persist even during rest (Angina they don't occur during rest)
Pain always/does not always occur with MI? Does NOT always- thus may go undiagnosed and become fatal
How to diagnose a MI: ECG and blood studies
How to diagnose MI through blood studies: elevated enzyme levels (released by damaged myocardial cells)
Enzymes elevated due to MI: Cardiac Troponin T, Cardiac Troponin I and CK-MB
What exists to connect posterior and anterior interventricular arteries? Arteriole Anastomoses
What is collateral circulation? When new blood vessels grow around a block to increase O2 for increasing demand (promoted by regular excercise)
How many times does the heart beat per day? Hint: it's the same amount of sperm a male produces in a day- 100,000
The inside of the heart needs to be smooth or rough? smooth
What causes the sound "lub" slamming of bicuspid and tricuspid
What causes the sound "dub" slamming shut of semi lunar valves
What does anastomoses mean? when one artery grabs another
Created by: smhoffman