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Unit 4: Nutrition

TermDefinition
Additives substances added to food to improve flavor, color, and texture or to preserve foods to help extend the shelf life.
Adipose Tissue made up of fat-storing cells and is the primary site of fat storage in the body
Amino Acids building blocks of all proteins. There are 20 different that combine to make all the proteins required for metabolism and growth
Anemia medical conditions when there are too little red blood cells, or they are too immature or do not contain sufficient hemoglobin to carry adequate oxygen to the tissues
Atherosclerosis build-up of plaque in the wall of the arteries causing narrowing and loss of elasticity
Basal Metabolic Rate measurement of the level of energy required to maintain the body’s vital life functions. Measured when the body is at complete rest
Body Mass Index measure of a person’s body size by calculating their weight in relation to their height
Bone Density measure of the strength of a bone by determining the amount of minerals (e.g. calcium) in relation to the amount of bone
Bran the outer layer of a grain and a good source of fiber, vitamins and minerals. The bran is present in wholegrain cereals and breads
Caffeine natural stimulant found in coffee, tea, chocolate and some energy drinks. As a stimulant caffeine may increase heart rate
Calcium forms strong bones and teeth, found in dairy products, fortified soy drinks, green leafy vegetables, nuts and seeds
Calorie measurement of energy
Carbohydrate the most readily converted energy source. Good sources include rice, bread, cereal, legumes, fruits and vegetables which also provide important nutrients
Cellulose an insoluble fiber that makes up the framework of plant cell walls
Cholesterol a sterol which is made by the body and is found naturally in animal products such as meat, eggs, poultry and dairy foods
Complete Proteins foods that contain all the essential amino acids in levels required by the body and do not require other foods to supply any
Dehydration when body water loss exceeds intake. This generally occurs due to insufficient water consumption or increased water loss due to vomiting, diarrhea or excessive sweating
Type 1 Diabetes results from the body’s inability to produce insulin in the pancreas
Type 2 Diabetes due to the body cells developing resistance to insulin
Diuretic substance that increases the production of urine thereby increasing the removal of water from the body
Endosperm the inner part of the grain. It contains carbohydrate, protein and B vitamins
Energy fuel we need from food to function and be active. Energy requirements vary depending on your age, body size and physical activity
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions. For example, in our body some help break down the food we eat and release energy
Essential Fatty Acids the body cannot synthesize itself and must therefore be acquired from the diet
Fad Diets generally, do not result in long-term weight loss. Common fad diets include The Atkins Diet, The South beach Diet and The Cabbage Soup Diet
Fats Lipids are an essential source of energy in the diet and they are a carrier for the fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K)
Polyunsaturated Fats (good) can help reduce cholesterol. They are found in sunflower, olive, canola oils and margarines as well as many nuts, seeds and soy foods
Saturated Fats ('bad') can raise cholesterol levels and therefore increase your risk of heart disease
Trans Fat found in margarine and baked goods such as biscuits and pastries.
Fiber key role in preventing constipation, cancer and heart disease. Wholegrain breads, cereals, legumes, rice, pasta, fruit and vegetables are good sources
Soluble Fiber help lower blood cholesterol levels and, in people with diabetes, helps to control blood sugar.
Insoluble Fiber helps keep us ‘regular’. Examples are wholegrain and whole meal wheat-based breads, cereals and pasta.
Food Allergy an abnormal reaction of the body’s immune system to a protein in food
Food Intolerance an adverse reaction of the body to compounds found in a variety of foods
Fortified nutrients added to food in levels higher than were originally present
Frustose type of sugar that is found naturally in fruit and honey
Glucose simple sugar derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates. Glucose is a major source of fuel for the body, particularly the brain
Gluten protein found in wheat, rye, and barley
Glycogen condensed form that any unused glucose takes when it is stored in the liver and around muscles. It is then readily available as required
Hemoglobin a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells throughout the body
Hydrogenation the addition of hydrogen to a monounsaturated or polyunsaturated oil, producing a more solid oil and is used to make spreadable fats and reduce oxidation to protect against rancidity
Insulin hormone produced in the pancreas in response to increased blood glucose levels
Iron helps create healthy blood and carries oxygen around the body
Lactose sugar found in milk
Legume plants of the pea or pod family, including peas, beans and lentils. They are rich in fiber and protein
Lycopene found in fruit and vegetables which gives them a red pigment
Macronutrients the key nutrients in the diet that provide us with energy. They are carbohydrate, protein and fat.
Metabolism processes that occur in our body that turn what we eat into energy.
Micronutrients compounds that are needed in small quantities to sustain a healthy body, such as vitamins and minerals.
Minerals important for the formation of bones, teeth, blood, connective tissues and regulate water balance, muscle contractions and nerve transmissions.
Nutrients substances obtained from food that we require for metabolism or physiological processes. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fiber and water
Protein important for growth of body cells and makes up virtually every part of the body. Can be found in dried peas, soy and baked beans, peanut butter, nuts, eggs, cheese, lean meat, fish and wholegrains.
Recommended Daily Intake the average daily amount of all known nutrients that need to be consumed to maintain good health.
Refined process where foods are stripped of their coarse outer layers and many nutritional aspects. For example, wholegrain wheat is refined to produce white flour.
Vegan consists only of plant foods, avoiding all animal products including honey and gelatin.
Lacto-ovo includes dairy products and eggs along with all plant foods, such as grains, fruits and vegetables, pulses and legumes, nuts and seeds.
Vitamins needed in small amounts by the body for health and growth, and they must be obtained by the diet daily.
Water nutrient that our body requires for health and it makes up 50-70% of our body weight. All cells in the body require it and adequate water intake helps prevent dehydration
Wholefoods unprocessed, or minimally processed and as such contain high levels of nutrients. Examples include fruit and vegetables, wholegrains, brown rice, nuts and seeds.
Whole Grain refers to a grain food where all parts of the grain (the germ, endosperm and bran layer) are intact and retained.
Created by: TVaracchi