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A&P2 chap 16


Which of the following is NOT a major endocrine organ but produces hormones in addition to its major excretory function? Kidney
Select the correct statement describing the differences between hormonal and neural controls of body functioning. Hormonal responses last longer than responses to nervous impulses.
The metabolic rate of most body tissues is controlled directly by TH
The stimulus for secreting parathyroid hormone is a good example of a Humoral Stimulus
The stimulus for producing insulin is high blood glucose
Which of the following elements is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormone? iodine
The hypophyseal portal system transports releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus to the Anterior Pituitary
Which of the following describes a hormone that CANNOT exhibit its full effect without the presence of another hormone? Permissiveness
Which of the following is NOT synthesized in the pituitary gland? ADH
Which hormone is NOT being synthesized if a goiter forms? TH
Polydipsia is excessive __________ associated with diabetes mellitus. Thirst
Which of the following is true about water-soluble hormones? They have a short half life
Excess growth hormone would cause all the following EXCEPT Suppression of Cancer
Insulin enhances the membrane transport of glucose in all of the following tissues EXCEPT Brain
Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is secreted by the __________ and targets the kidneys and adrenal cortex. heart
Any given hormone will influence the activity of its target cells
Down-regulation involves the loss of receptors and prevents the target cells from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels. TRUE
When one hormone opposes the action of another hormone, the interaction is called Antagonism
Which of the following occurs within a negative feedback system? Target organ effects inhibit further hormone release.
The anterior pituitary is known as the “master endocrine gland” because it controls the hypothalamus. FALSE
Which of the following stimulate(s) most body cells to increase in size and divide? GH
Which of the following hormones stimulates gamete (sperm or egg) production? FSH
As blood levels of __________ rise, the expulsive contractions of labor gain momentum and finally end in birth. OXYTOCIN
Which of the following is NOT one of the areas in which thyroid hormone (TH) plays an important role? helping the body avoid dehydration and water overload
Which of the following conditions, if left untreated, progresses to respiratory paralysis and death? hypoparathyroidism
What triggers hormone release? Humoral factors Tropic Hormones Nervous System
How are hormones eliminated? enzymatic degradation removal from blood, uptake to target cells
blood to concentration (ECF>ICF) (400mOsm/L) Hyperosmotic
watery (dilute)(150 mOsm/L) Hypo osmotic
ADH pathway stimulus: hyper osmotic state low BV, or high plasma osmolarity ADH released by post. pit, Kidney H20 reabsorption BV to normal
What is the function of oxytocin? uterine contractions, milk ejection, male ejaculatory response
GH pathway stimuli: time of day, age hypothalamus GHRH released ant. pituitary GH released by ant pit bloodstream
TH pathway stimulus: cold temp, pregnancy hypothalamus TRH released ant pituitary TSH released by ant pit Thyroid gland
Glucocorticoid: Cortisol pathway stimulus: time of day, stress, cortisol hypothalamus CRH released ant pituitary ACTH released by ant pit adrenal cortex
LH/FSH pathway hypothalamus GnRH released ant pituitary FSH/LH released ovary, testes
Adrenal Cortex pathways stimulus : low BV,BP, low Na+, high K+ adrenal cortex aldosterone released kidney Na+reabsorbed lowBV,BP kidney renin released angiotensinogen>angiotensin 1>angiotensin2>vascoconstriction(raiseBP)
Hyperaldosteronism high blood Na+, low blood K+, ^BV, BP
Hpoaldosteronism low blood Na+, high blood K+, low BV,BP
Hypoparathyroidism low blood calcium
Hyperparathyroidism high blood calcium
Beta cell produce what hormone? insulin
Alpha cell produces what hormone? glucagon
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 beta cell destruction, no insulin formation, pump
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 reversible, oral medication, targets cells for insulin demonstrate insulin resistance
What is polyuria increased U.O
What is polydipsia really thirsty
What is Polyphagia hungry (usually type 1)
What is Hypergycemia high blood sugar
What is Glycosuria Sugar in urine
What is ketonuria ketones in urine (acidic)
Diabetes Insipidus is caused by polyuria due to no ADH or no ADH receptors
What are the hormones released by the nervous system? Epinephrine from adrenal medulla
What is a Chromaffin cell tumor? pheochromacytoma
pineal gland has what hormone? melatonin
Adipose tisuue has what hormone? leptin
Heart has what hormone? ANP atrial natriuretic peptide
Kidney has what hormone? EPO
Created by: cdixon10



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