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QuestionAnswer
Anatomy Study of structure
Subdivisions of anatomy: Macroscopic, microscopic, developmental
Essential tools for studying anatomy Mastery of terminology, observation, manipulation, palpation, ausculation (listening)
Physiology Study of function at many levels
Subdivisions based on Organ systems
Principle of complementarity Function always reflects structure
Levels of structural organization Atoms, molecules, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Name 11 major organ systems Intergumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive
Integumentary External body covering, protects deeper tissues from injury, sysnthesizes vitamin D and houses cutaneous receptors and sweat and oil glands
Skeletal Protects and supports organs, framework muscles use to cause movement, store minerals and blood cells created within
Muscular Allows manipulation of environment, locomotion, maintains posture and produces heat
Nervous system Control system, responds to changes by activating muscles and glands
Endocrine Glands secrete hormones that regulate body processes i.e. growth, reproduction and metabolism
Cardiovascular system Transport blood which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients wastes, etc.
Lymphatic Immune response and cleaning, houses white blood cells, disposes of debris, picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns to blood
Respiratory Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removed co2. Gaseous exchanges occur through walls of air sacs in lungs
Digestive Breaks down food into absorbable units, stores excess nutrients, indigestible eliminated as feces
Urinary Removes nitrogenous waste, regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood
Reproductive Production of offspring, females create egg and have structures for development, mammary glands produce milk
9 necessary life functions Maintaining boundaries between in and out, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth, evolution
5 basic survival needs Nutrients, oxygen, water, normal body temp, appropriate atmospheric pressure
Homeostasis Maintaining stable internal ennvironemnt despite outside changes, dynamic process, constantly regulating via nervous and endocrine systems
3 components of control mechanism Receptor (sensor) ~ control center (determines set point and appropriate response) ~ Effector (carries out response)
Negative feeback and examples Brings body back toward homeostasis, constantly regulating i.e. body temp, blood volume, blood sugar
Positive feedback and examples Enhances or exaggerates orginial stimulus, Cascade effect i.e. labor contractions by oxytocin, blood clotting
Anatomical position Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward
Cephalic Head
Head
Cervical Spinal cord
Thoracic Chest
Pelvic Pelvis
Pubic Genital region
Manus Hand
Pedal Foot
Cranial Towards head or upper part of structure
Superior Towards head or upper part of structure
Inferior Away from head, towards lower part of structure
Caudal Away from head, towards lower part of structure
Ventral Toward front on body
Anterior Toward front on body
Dorsal Towards back of body
Posterior Towards back of body
Medial Towards midline
Lateral Away from midline
Intermediate Between a more medial and a more lateral structure
Proximal Closer to origin of limb
Distal Further from origin of limb
Superficial Toward or at body surface also called external
Deep Away from body surface also called internal
Two major divisions of body name them and what's in them Axial - head,neck, trunk Appendicular - limbs
Divides body vertically into right and left parts. Describe 2 types Sagital plane. Midsagittal falls right on midline. Parasagittal plane is not on midline.
Divides body vertically into anterior and posterior parts Frontal (or coronal) plane
Divides body horizontally into Superior and inferior parts. Creates a cross section. Transverse (horizontal) plane
Cavity that protects nervous system. Name its two subdivisions Dorsal. Cranial (encases brain) and vertebral (encases spinal cord).
Cavity that house interal organs (viscera). Name 2 subdivisions. Ventral. Thoracic and abdominopelvic.
What sperates thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities? Diaphragm
What does thoracic cavity contain? Heart and lungs
What does abdominal cavity contain? Digestive viscera - stomach, intestines, spleen, liver
What does pelvic cavity contain? Urinary bladder, reproductive organs, rectum
Name 9 abdominopelvic quadrents and say where they are located Starting from top right proceeding to the left - right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right iliac (inguinal), hypogastric (pubic), left iliac (inguinal)
Created by: Hudsonbielecki