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NASM Domain 1

Basic and applied sciences and nutritional concepts

The Nervous System communication network within the body
Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of brain and spinal cord; coordinates activity of the body
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) nerves connecting the CNS to the rest of the body and the environment
Somatic part of the PNS that served outer areas of the body and skeletal muscle; voluntary
Autonomic Involuntary systems of the PNS (heart, digestion)
Autonomic Subdivisions sympathetic and parasympathetic
Parasympathetic decreases activation during rest and recovery
Sympathetic increases activation to prep for activity
Motor (efferent) Neurons transmit nerve impulses from the CNS to effector sites
Sensory (afferent) Neurons respond to stimuli; transmit nerve impulses from effector sites to the CNS
Mechanoreceptors sense distortion in body tissues
Joint Receptors respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of joints
Tendons connect muscle to bone; provide an anchor for muscles to produce force
Fascicles bundle of individual muscle fibers
Muscle Fiber cellular components and myofibrils encased in a plasma membrane
Sarcomere produces muscular contraction; repeating sections of actin and myosin
Sliding Filament Theory thick and thin filaments slide past each other, shortening the entire sarcomere
Type 1 (slow twitch) Muscle Tissue small in size; fatigue slowly
Type 2 (fast twitch) Muscle Tissue larger in size; quick to produce maximal tension; fatigue quickly
Motor Unit consists of one motor neuron and the muscle fibers it connects with
Neural Activation contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation
Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that transport impulses from nerve to muscle
Local Stabilization System consists of _____________ and attaches _____________ transverse abdominis, internal oblique, multifidus, pelvic floor, diaphragm; directly to the vertebrae
Global Stabilization System consists of _____________ and attaches ______________ quadratus lumborum, psoas major, external oblique, rectus abdominis, gluteus medius, adductor complex, portions of internal oblique; attaches from pelvis to spine
Movement System consists of ____________ and attaches ___________ latissimus dorsi, hip flexors, hamstring complex, and quadriceps;; spine and/or pelvis to the extremities
Axial Skeleton consists of: the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column
Appendicular Skeleton consists of: the upper and lower extremities, and shoulder and pelvic girdles
Skeletal System Function supports, protects, allows bodily movement, produces blood, stores minerals
Process Projection protruding from a bone where muscles, tendons, or ligaments can attach
Tendons connect muscle to bone
Ligaments connect bone to bone; little blood supply and slow to heal
Arthrokinematics joint motion
Non-Synovial Joints no joint cavity, connective tissue or cartilage; little to no movement
Synovial Joints held together by joint capsule and ligaments; associated with movement
Major motion types for joints are ______________ roll, spin, and slide
Hinge Joints: elbows and ankles; sagittal plane movement
Ball and Socket Joints: hips and shoulders; most mobile joint with movement through all three planes of motion
Endocrine System system of glands that secrete hormones to regulate bodily function
Insulin regulates energy and glucose metabolism in the body
Atria smaller, superior chambers of the heart that receive blood from veins
Right Atrium: gathers deoxygenated blood returning to the heart
Left Atrium: gathers oxygenated blood from the lungs
Sinoatrial (SA) Node: initiates impulse for heart rate; known as the pacemaker and located in the right atrium
Ventricles larger, inferior chambers of the heart that pump blood out
__________ ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs right
__________ ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body left
__________ carry blood away from the heart arteries
__________ carry blood toward the heart veins
small branches of arteries that end in capillaries arterioles
Capillaries the smallest blood vessels; they exchange gas, chemicals, and water between the blood and the body
very small veins that connect capillaries to larger veins venules
Stroke Volume the amount of blood pumped with each contraction
Cardiac Output volume of blood pumped per minute; heart rate x stroke volume
Primary Inspiratory Muscles: diaphragm and external intercostals
Secondary Inspiratory Muscles: scalenes, pectoralis minor, and sternoclediomastoid
Expiratory Muscles: internal intercostals and abdominals
Resting Oxygen Consumption (VO2) 3.5ml x kg x min = 1 metabolic equivalent (MET)
Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2max) highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion
Cardiorespiratory Exercise increases: cardiac output breathing efficiency oxygen transport and use use of fats for fuel mental alertness ability to relax and sleep tolerance to stress lean body mass metabolic rate
Cardiorespiratory Exercise decreases: resting heart rate cholesterol blood pressure the risks of heart disease blood clots depression anxiety obesity diabetes
Aerobic requires oxygen
Anaerobic without oxygen
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy storage and transfer unit within cells
gains enough energy with normal oxygen intake Anaerobic threshold
elevation of metabolism after exercise Excess post oxygen consumption (EPOC)
ATP-PC Anaerobic High-intensity Lasts 10-15 seconds
Glycolysis Anaerobic Moderate-to-high intensity Up to 30-50 seconds
Oxidative System Aerobic glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transport chain Long-term energy
Biomechanics science concerned with internal and external forces acting on the body
influence applied by one object to another, accelerates or decelerates the second object force
Frontal Plane Motions: adduction and abduction, lateral flexion, eversion and inversion
Sagittal Plane Motions: flexion and extension
Transverse Plane Motions: rotation, horizontal adduction and abduction
Horizontal Abduction transverse plane arm movement from anterior to lateral (e.g. chest flies)
moving in opposite direction of force, accelerates or produces force; muscle shortens Concentric Contraction
muscle develops tension while lengthening; decelerates force. Eccentric Contraction
muscular force equal to resistive force, stabilizes force; no change in muscle length Isometric Contraction
Length-tension relationship resting length of a muscle and the tension it can produce at that length
Force-velocity curve as the velocity of a contraction increases, concentric force decreases and eccentric force increases.
ability to produce and reduce force, and stabilize the kinetic chain in all three planes of motion. Neuromuscular Efficiency
alignment of the musculoskeletal system that allows center of gravity to be maintained over a base of support. Structural Efficiency
Davis's Law that soft tissue models along the lines of stress.
neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract; provides inhibitory effect to muscle spindles Autogenic Inhibition
simultaneous contraction of one muscle, and relaxation of its antagonist to allow movement Reciprocal Inhibition
Relative Flexibility tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance
What is pattern overload? consistently repeating the same motion, which creates abnormal stress on the body
What are predictable patterns of muscle imbalances? postural distortion patterns
muscle inhibition caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist Altered Reciprocal Inhibition
What are the stages of the OPT model? stabilization strength power
a monosaccharide is a single sugar unit (glucose, fructose, galactose)
disaccharide two sugar units (sucrose, lactose, maltose)
polysaccharide long chain of monosaccharides linked together (starch, fiber)
Which fiber is dissolved by water and helps moderate blood glucose and lower cholesterol? soluble fiber
Which fiber does not dissolve in water? insoluble fiber
Glucose a simple sugar made by the body from carbs, fats, and sometimes protein; a main source of fuel
What is glycogen? a complex carbohydrate used to store energy in liver and muscle tissue
The rate carb sources raise blood sugar and the effect on insulin release is known as Glycemic index
What is considered high, moderate, and low on the glycemic index? High >70 Moderate 56 - 69 Low <55
Triglycerides chemical form of most fat in food and in the body
What raises bad LDL cholesterol? saturated fatty acid
What raises bad and lowers good cholesterols and is used to increase shelf life in foods? trans-fatty acids
What increases good HDL cholesterol and decreases risk of heart disease? unsaturated fatty acid
calorie (lower case c) amount of heat energy required to raise 1 gram of water by 1°C
What percentage of total energy expenditure comes from physical activity? 20%
6-10% of total energy expenditure comes from: digestion
What is tolerable upper intake (UL)? highest average daily intake level likely to pose no risk to health
What is adequate intake (AI)? recommended daily nutrient intake level adequate for healthy individuals
Ergogenic aid something that enhances athletic performance