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outline 17

Comparative Physiology- Renner Lecture 17

what are the four potential sites for gas exchange in amphibians? what is used in most amphibians skin, gills, buccal cavity, lungs in most amphibians, a combination of three of these is used
in amphibians, all (or ~85%) of CO2 is eliminated by this mechanism. Regardless of temperature cutaneous diffusion
cutaneous uptake of O2 depends on this ambient temperature
what gas exchange mechanism is used during hibernation in amphibians cutaneous exchange
as T increases in amphibians, what happens to the cutaneous exchange mechanism a greater percentage of O2 is exchanged by the lungs, at 25C ~2/3 is by lungs, 1/3 cutaneous
what creatures have gills tadpoles and some adult frogs salamanders
urodele amphibians salamanders
anurans frogs
in frogs gills are covered with _________________ derived from the ____________________ operculum, integument
these organisms have external gills adult salamanders
frog tadpoles use this mechanism which is somewhat analogous to fish buccal pumping
salamanders use this to move external gills in H2O muscle contractions
level of movement of external gills in salamanders depends on O2 tension in water Temperature
how does buccopharyngeal pumping work recirculates air in the buccal cavity for exchange between pulmonary cycles
O2 is absorbed from recirculated air by buccal cavity
describe Lungs in amphibians (mention vascularization) highly vascularized sacs with central opening have minimal to modest degrees of folding (sacs)
lungs in amphibians are unicameral
ventilation mechanism in frogs -decrease P in buccal cav by depressing buccal floor increasing V. air in mouth/nares -buccal floor raised, nares close. high buccal P, air into lungs -close glottis to keep air in lungs -buccopharyngeal pumping -elastic recoil lungs, air out nares
how do some amphibian species perform buccopharyngeal pumping alternately raising/lowering buccal floor and since the glottis is closed, pulmonary air stays in the lungs
when does expiration occur in amphibian ventilation when the glottis opens and elastic recoil of the lungs forces pulmonary air out through the nares
how do frogs ventilate by using buccal pressure to fill the lungs
birds and mammals are endothermic, how does that affect their gas exchange in order to maintain body temp (endothermic), respiration is continuous and large amounts of O2 are required
lung size in mammals vs amphibians humans' lungs have 15x bigger surface area compared to amphibians taking mass into account humans lungs are multicameral
how does air reach lungs in mammals through a conduit system
how branched are the bronchi in mammals each bronchus subdivides up to 27 times until the terminal bronchioles are reached
what is covered with cartilage in the mammal conduit respiration system larger divisions–trachea, bronchi
what are the bronchioles covered with smooth muscle walls
components of respiratory zone in mammals respiratory bronchioles which end in alveolar sacs that contain multiple alveoli
what is the conduit system termed in mammals anatomical dead space because it is not involved in gas exchange ~150 mL
a term for quite, tidal ventilation in mammals, which is employed most of the time eupnea
nasal hairs in nares function to filter for large dust particles
convoluted structures lined with mucus secreting epithelium nasal cavities
nares empty into nasal cavities
upper portion of nasal cavities contains olfactory epithelium
lower posterior portion of nasal cavities contain highly vascularized and contain goblet cells
ciliated epithelial cells that secrete mucus goblet cells
functions of mucus moisten/humidify air as it enters respiratory system trap dust particles bc its sticky/wet
convoluted pathway in nasal cavities allows for mucus to trap dust particles
nasal cavities' convoluted pathway allows dust particles to be trapped, that is termed turbulent percipitation
move particles toward pharynx to be swallowed or spit out cilia
cilia beating particles toward pharynx to be expelled by either swallowing or spitting it out is termed escalator effect
functional unit of respiration in mammals alveoli
Created by: rusulali97



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