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OB Ch9

Observational Behaviour Chapter 9, Scandura 2nd Edition

TermDefinitionQuestionAnswer
Law of Effect Led to the development of operant conditioning.
What are the two kinds of reinforcement that increase behavior? Positive and negative reinforcement.
Gifts are viewed by an employer as Acts of kindness that carry more meaning than cash.
Punishment The presentation of an adverse event causes a decrease in the behavior it follows.
What are the two kinds of punishment? Punishment by application Punishment by removal (also called extinction)
What are the two schedules of reinforcement? Continuous and partial reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement Not seen often in organizations
Partial Reinforcement Based on time (interval) or the number of times the response is given (ratio)
Organizational Behavior Modifications (OB MOD) Used to increase performance and reduce absenteeism.
Partial Reinforcement Fixed or variable (random)
Continuous Reinforcement Useful during the learning process (training)
What are the results of OB MOD? Increased task performance by 17% Results of intervention using OB MOD were stronger in manufacturing than service organizations
Reinforcement theory is based on The law of effect
Operant conditioning is often referred to as Reinforcement theory
What is the theory that purports that behavior is a function of consequences? Operant conditioning
Social Learning Theory Extends operant conditioning
Social Learning Theory People can learn from watching other people succeed or fail. (Observational Learning / Modeling)
4 Steps in Modeling Process Attention Retention Reproduction Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation Gain satisfaction from the task itself
Extrinsic Motivation Performance outcome expectancies Satisfaction comes from the extrinsic rewards (i.e., money)
Extrinsics is In service of Intrinsics in the relationship of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards
Self-Determination Theory Intrinsic motivation is a function of a person's needs for autonomy and competence.
Self-Determination Theory Problem is rewards may have conflicting effects (i.e., person can see monetary reward as both controlling and informational)
Amotivation Lack of motivation
Amotivation Absence of intentional regulation
Tying pay directly to performance can have Dysfunctional or even unethical consequences
Pay Dispersion When employees receive different levels of rewards for individual efforts
Pay dispersion can cause Jealousy among employees and/or harm team performance
If pay dispersion create pay inequity due to discrimination It may result in litigation under the Equal Pay Act
What do leaders motivate followers with? Frequent feedback
What do leaders motivate followers with? Proper rewards
What do leaders motivate followers with? Implementing a fair and rewarding compensation system
What's the pattern for feedback seeking? How frequently people seek it
What's the pattern for feedback seeking? How people seek it (e.g., observing, comparing, asking)
What's the pattern for feedback seeking? The timing
What's the pattern for feedback seeking? Who people ask for feedback from (e.g., boss)
What's the pattern for feedback seeking? What people ask for feedback about (e.g., successful completion of the task)
Possible problem with review performance Perceptions of bias in the process
Possible problem with review performance Fear of punishment
Possible problem with review performance Time consumed by the process
Possible problem with review performance Employees don't like negative feedback
Possible problem with review performance Employees may tune out the boss once the rating is known
Law of Effect Past actions leading to positive outcomes tend to be repeated.
Law of Effect Past actions that led to negative outcomes with diminish.
Created by: ltt