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OB Ch7

Observational Behaviour Chapter 7, Scandura 2nd Edition

Power The potential of one person (group) to influence another person or group.
Influence Can be thought of as power in use
Position Power Form of power that come with a person's position in the heirarchy. Three types of this power: coercive, reward, and legitimate.
Personal Power Power come from the personal characteristics of the person and may have no relationship to their position in the organization. Two types of this power: expert and referent.
Coercive Power The authority/ability to punish, and can include threats.
Reward Power The authority/ability to provide incentives or other things valued.
Legitimate Power The authority/ability to make a request and get a response due to the nature of the roles between two people (i.e., boss and direct report). It is based upon structural level in the organization and/or feeling of obligation.
Expert Power The ability to influence others due to knowledge or a special skill set.
Referant Power The ability to influence based on others' identification with the individual and followers' desire to emulate her. It is based on liking, respect, and admiration.
Reactions to Power and Influence Commitment, Compliance, Resistance
Rational Persuasion (Influence Strategy Tactic) The agent uses logical arguments and factual evidence to show a proposal or request is feasible and revelant for attaining important task objectives.
Apprising (Influence Strategy Tactic) The agent explains how carrying out a request or supporting a proposal will benefit the target personally or help advance the target person's career.
Inspirational Appeals (Influence Strategy Tactic) The agent makes an appeal to values and ideals or seeks to arouse the target person's emotions to gain commitment for a request or proposal.
Consultation (Influence Strategy Tactic) The agent encourages the target to suggest improvements in a proposal or to help plan an activity or change for which the target person's support and assistance are desired.
Collaboration (Influence Strategy Tactic) The agent offers to provide relevant resources and assistance if the target will carry out a request or approves a proposed change.
Ingratiation (Influence Strategy Tactic) The agent uses praise and flattery before or during an influence attempt or expresses confidence in the target's ability to carry out a difficult request.
Personal Appeals (Influence Strategy Tactic) The agent asks the target to carry out a request or support a proposal out of friendship or asks for a personal favor before saying what it is.
Exchange (Influence Strategy Tactic) The agent offers an incentive, suggests an exchange of favors, or indicates willingness to reciprocate at a later time if the target will do what the agent requests.
Coalition Tactics (Influence Strategy Tactic) The agent seeks the aid of others to persuade the target to do something or uses the support of others as a reason for the target to agree.
Legitimating Tactics (Influence Strategy Tactic) The agent seeks to establish the legitimacy of a request or to verify authority to make it by referring to rules, policies, contracts, or precedent.
Pressure (Influence Strategy Tactic) The agent uses demands, threats, frequent checking, or persistent reminders to influence the target to carry out a request.
Impression Management Behaviors people use to protect their self-image and/or change the way they are seen by others.
Impression Management Affects interviewing, performance appraisal, and career success Body language is an important part of this
Apologies (Impression Management Strategy) Goal: minimizing bad Saying sorry when violated a coworker's trust
Excuses (Impression Management Strategy) Goal: minimizing bad Not taking responsibility for your failures
Justifications (Impression Management Strategy) Goal: minimizing bad Blaming poor performance on another department's failure to respond
Exemplification (Impression Management Strategy) Goal: maximizing good Trying to appear busy, even when things are slower at work
Ingratiation (Impression Management Strategy) Goal: maximizing good Using flattery to make coworkers like you more
Self-Promotion (Impression Management Strategy) Goal: maximizing good Hanging diplomas on office wall so that people are aware of your accomplishments
Perceptions of Organization Politics Use of influence tactics is often seen as political Have been associated with decrease job satisfaction, increased anxiety and stress, increased turnover, and reduced performance
Political Skill The ability to effectively understand others to work, and to use such knowledge to influence others to act in ways that enhance one's personal and/or organizational objectives.
Political Skill Helps execute influence tactics.
Influence Exercise of power to change the behavior, attitudes, and/or values of that individual or group.
Expert, Referant, and Reward Power Positively related to satisfaction with supervisor.
Legitimate Power Exerts little influence on either job satisfaction or performance.
Reward Power Does not significantly affect satisfaction, but have positive influence on performance.
Coercive Power Unrelated to performance but negatively effect satisfaction.
Referant Power Strongly influences satisfaction.
Expert Power Positively influences both satisfaction and performance.
Commitment Also known as internalization; strong effort made and enthusiastically carries out the request. Both attitudes and behaviors change.
Compliance Willing to complete the request but does so in an apathetic manner giving minimal effort; only behavior changes.
Resistance Opposed to the request and refuses to do it. No change in attitude or behavior toward the request.
Zone of Indifference Each individual within which orders are acceptable without conscious questioning of their authority.
Lines of Supply Leaders bring in the things that their group needs, such as materials, money, and resources such as rewards and even prestige.
Lines of Information Leaders need to know what is happening in the organization that may affect their group's goals.
Line of Support A leader needs to be able to innovate to have an impact on the organization. He or She needs support that allows for risk taking beyond typical organizational routines.
Rational Persuasion The only tactic that help stable positive relationships with both task and relationship outcomes.
Intimidation (Impression Management Strategy) Goal: minimizing bad Where people signal their power or potential to punish in order to be seen as dangerous by observers.
Supplication (Impression Management Strategy) Goal: minimizing bad Where indviduals advertise their weaknesses or shortcomings in order to elicit an attribution of being needy from observers.
Organizational Politics Unsanctioned influence attempts that seek to promote self-interest at the expense of organizational goals.
Perceptions of Organizational Politics (POP) An individual's subjective appraisal of the extent to which the work environment is characterized as self-serving of various individuals and groups, to the detriment or at the cost of other individuals or groups.
General Political Behavior Includes behaviors of individuals who act in a self-serving manner to obtain valued outcomes.
Going Along to Get Ahead Consists of lack of action by individuals (i.e., remain silent) in order to secure valued outcomes.
Pay and Promotion Policies Involves the organization behaving politically through the policies it enacts.
Networking Ability (Political Skill Behavior) The ability to create a diverse constellation of contacts both inside and outside of the organization.
Social Astuteness (Political Skill Behavior) Being able to accurately interpret the behavior of others through attentive observation.
Interpersonal Influence (Political Skill Behavior) The ability to adapt influence strategies to different situations.
Apparent Sincerity (Political Skill Behavior) Appearing to others as genuine and honest.
Created by: ltt