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Exercise Physiology

Chapter 2 of AFAA PFT Certification

Define: Stroke Volume The amount of blood pumped by the heart in one beat
Define: Cardiac Output The amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute HR x SV
Define: Myocardial Infarction Heart Attack
Define: Ischemia Inadequate blood flow
Define: Vaneous Return The amount of blood being returned to the heart by the veins
Define: Valsalva Maneuver Holding the breath during exertion
Define: Minute Ventilation the total amount of air breathed per minute
Define: Residual Lung Volume The amount of air remaining in the lungs after forced expulsion
Define: Forced Vital Capacity The amount of air forcefully exhaled after a maximal inhale
Define: Total Lung Capacity Residual Volume + Forced Vital Capacity
What are the structures of the heart? Right and Left Atrium (Upper) and Ventricles (Lower)
Describe the blood flow patterns of the Circulatory System. Deoxygenated blood enter the Right Atrium --> Right Ventricle --> Lungs (To be oxygenated) --> Left Atrium --> Left Ventricle --> Aorta --> Arteries --> Arterioles --> Capillaries ==> Venules --> Veins --> Vena Cavae --> Right Atrium
Describe the structures of the Pulmonary System. Nose/Mouth --> Larynx --< trachea --> Lungs --> Bronchi --> Bronchioles --> Alveoli --> Alveolar Sacs
Define: Adenosine Triphosphate Source of cell's energy
List the 3 metabolic pathways or energy systems. The Phosphagen System The Anaerobic Glycolytic System The Aerobic System
Which energy system uses fat, carbohydrates, and proteins? The Aerobic System
Which energy system has a limiting factor of CP? The Phosphagen system
List exercises and activities that rely primarily on the: Phosphagen System Olympic Lifting
List exercises and activities that rely primarily on the: Anaerobic Glycolytic System Sports teams: Soccer, Football, Rugby, Tennis, etc.
List exercises and activities that rely primarily on the: The Aerobic System Distance Sports (running, walking, cycling), Marathons, and Daily Living
Define: Glucose Blood Sugar
Define: Lactic Acid Pyruvic Acid broken down without sufficient oxygen
Define: Glycolysis The Breakdown of Glucose to Lactic Acid
Define: Mitochondria A cell's powerhouse
Define: Beta Oxidation The breakdown of fat to Acetyl CoA (to use in the aerobic system)
Define: Krebs Cycle Aerobic breakdown of glucose and fat into ATP
Define: Anaerobic Threshold when the muscles can no longer produce ATP and rely on Anaerobic Glycolytic Pathways
Define: Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO2max) volume of oxygen consumed per minute at the cellular level
Define: Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC) the body's way of replenishing its oxygen stores after exertion (hyperventilating)
Describe the Nervous System Brain, Nerves, and Spine
Name the (3) types of muscle tissue 1. Cardiac 2. Smooth 3. Skeletal/Striated
Name and Describe the (2) major types of muscle fibers. 1. Slow twitch (Type I, Endurance) 2. Fast Twitch (Type II, Quick to Fatigue)
What is the Sliding Filament Theory? The theory that a muscles contract by (2) different tyoes of filament sliding over one another
Define: Sarcomere Unit of myofilament
Define: Actin Thin filament connected to the Z Line
Define: Myosin Thick filament that connects actin fibers
Define: Motor Unit One section of muscle that contains a Sarcomere
Define the function of a Muscle Spindle. Sends different information to the brain about changes in muscle length and speed at which the changes occur
Describe the function of the Golgi Tendon Organ It prevents the body from injury of stopping a muscle's contraction or extension before capacity
Created by: BeeGe1026