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Lymphatic/Immune PtI

A&P II

QuestionAnswer
Pathogens Organisms that cause disease (bacteria, viruses, cancer, toxins).
Lymphocytes Respond to invading pathogens, foreign proteins (i.e. bacterial toxins), and abnormal body cells (cancer).
Innate Immunity Natural, non-specific anatomical barriers.
Innate physical barriers Skin: thick layer of dead cells in the epidermis provides protection. Mucous membranes: mucous film on these membranes traps microbes.
Innate chemical barriers Lysozyme in years is an antibacterial agent. Gastric juice (HCl) in stomach is highly acidic (pH 2-3), which destroys bacteria.
Types of innate immunity. 1. Physical barriers 2. Chemical barriers 3. Inflammation 4. Fever 5. Phagocytes
Adaptive Immunity Acquired, specific, developed over time by the body.
Types of adaptive immunity 1. Specific defense after innate; developed after exposure to antigens. 2. Retain memory for every individual antigen encountered. 3. Actively acquired or passively (vaccine) acquired.
Lymph Fluid similar to plasma but does not have plasma proteins.
Lymphatic vessels (lymphatics) Carry lymph from peripheral tissues to the venous system.
Organization of the Lymphatic System 1. Lymph 2. Lymphatic vessels (lymphatics) 3. Lymphoid tissue and lymphoid organs 4. Lymphocytes, phagocytes, and other immune system cells
Primary Lymph Tissues and Organs Where lymphocytes are formed and mature: Red bone marrow Thymus gland
Secondary Lymph Tissues and Organs Where lymphocytes are activated and cloned (identical reproductions): Appendix Spleen Lymph nodes Tonsils MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue)
Functions of Lymphatic System -Produce, maintain and distribute lymphocytes to defend against infection and environment. -Immune cells (lymphocytes, macrophages, and macrophages) travel to sites of injury/infection ~Circulate constantly in bloodstream ~Can leave capillaries and en
Lymphatic capillaries (terminal lymphatics) Also known as Terminal Lymphatics -Smallest lymph vessels - Peripheral tissue branches
Small lymphatic vessels - Carry lymph from the lymphatic capillaries towards the trunk. - Light gold or copper in color. - Similar to veins.
Major lymph-collecting vessels Superficial lymphatics Deep lymphatics
How are Lymphatic Capillaries different from Blood Capillaries? 1. Begins as pockets instead of tubes 2. Larger diameters 3. Thinner walls 4. Look flattened or irregular when seen in cross-section
How are Small Lymphatic Vessels similar to Veins? How are they different? SIMILAR - Have valves (bulging appearance) for one way flow. - Aided by skeletal muscle contractions. DIFFERENT -Smaller than veins. -More numerous.
Major Lymph-Collecting Vessels: Superficial Lymphatics - Subcutaneous layer of skin - Mucous membranes (digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive) - Serous membranes (pleural, pericardial, peritoneal)
Major Lymph-Collecting Vessels: Deep Lymphatics Accompany deep veins and arteries supplying skeletal muscle + organs.
Lymphatic Trunks Where superficial and deep lymphatics meet. Trunks empty into two large collection vessels.
Thoracic Duct - Collects all lymph from below diaphragm + left side of body above diaphragm. - Cisterna Chyli: sac that receives all lymph from below diaphragm.
Right Lymphatic Duct -Collects lymph from right side above diaphragm. -Smallest of the two large collection vessels.
Lymphedema -Blockage of lymphatic drainage. - Accumulated interstitial (tissue) fluid. - May pose risk of infection. - Stagnant, toxic pathogens can accumulate and overwhelm local defenses without fully activating immune system.
What risk does Lymphedema present? Infection -Stagnant, toxic pathogens can accumulate and overwhelm local defenses without fully activating immune system.
Three classes of Lymphocytes 1. T cells (thymus-dependent) 2. B cells (bone marrow-derived) 3. NK cells (natural killer)
Of the circulating lymphocytes, what percentage are T cells? 80%
What are the main types of T cells? - *Cytotoxic T (Tc) cells - *Memory T cells - *Helper T (T H) cells - *Suppressor T (Ts) cell -regulatory T cells
Cytotoxic T cells -Attack cells infected by viruses -Produce cell-mediated immunity
Memory T cells -Formed in response to foreign substance -Remain in body to give "immunity"
Helper T cells -Stimulate function of T cells and B cells
Suppressor T cells -Inhibit function of T cells and B cells when immune response needs to end (crisis over)
Regulatory T cells -Are helper and suppressor T cells -Control sensitivity of immune response
Of the circulating lymphocytes, what percentage are B cells? 10-15%
What are the types of cells B cells differentiate into? -Plasma cells -Memory cells
What is the function of B cells? -Produce and secrete antibodies (immunoglobulin proteins) -Responsible for antibody-mediated immunity (humoral immunity b/c antibodies are found in body fluids)
Antibodies -Also called immunoglobulins -Made by B cells (plasma cells) -Plasma proteins that bind to a specific antigen
Antigens -Targets that identify any pathogen or foreign compound -Usually, antigens are the actual pathogens themselves -Marked for death by antibodies
Antibody-Mediated Immunity (humoral immunity) -From B cells (plasma cells) -Starts a chain of events that destroys the target compound or organism -Initiated by antibody-antigen binding (Antibody-Antigen Complex)
Natural Killer (NK) Cells -Also called large granular lymphocytes -Provide innate, non-specific immunity (you were born with Natural Killer cells!) -Responsible for immunological surveillance -Attack foreign cells, virus-infected cells, and cancer cells
Of the circulating lymphocytes, what percentage are NK cells? 5-10%
What is the ratio of T cells to B cells? 8:1
Where are B cells seldom found? Thymus
How do lymphocytes wander through tissues? Enter blood vessels or lymphatics for transport to site of emergency.
How long can lymphocytes potentially live? Years! (80% for 4 years, some more than 20 years)
T cells move Fast
B cells move Slow (making antibodies)
Lymphopoiesis occurs in the Red Bone Marrow, Thymus and peripheral lymphoid tissues.
Lymphopoiesis in RBM and Thymus: Group 1 Stem cells make immature B cells and NK cells -Remains in RBM -Immature B cells are wrapped in extensions of Stromal Cells
Lymphopoiesis in RBM and Thymus: Group 2 Stem cells migrate to thymus to make T cells -Migrate to thymus -Isolated by Blood-Thymus Barrier and divide repeatedly, producing all the kinds of T cells - (Only 2% are selected to join team! 98% are apoptosed)
Lymphoid Tissues 1. Nodules -Small, localized collection of lymphoid tissue. 2. Tonsils -Large lymphoid nodules in walls of pharynx. 3. M.A.L.T. -Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.
Nodules -Connective tissues dominated by lymphocytes. -Small, localized collection of lymphoid tissue, usually located in the loose connective tissue Beneath Wet Epithelial (covering or lining) Membranes, as in the digestive system, respiratory system, and urina
Tonsils -Large lymphoid nodules. -Most people have FIVE tonsils in the wall of the pharynx.
What are the five tonsils in the wall of the pharynx? -L. & R. Palatine tonsils (2) -Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid) -Lingual tonsils at base of tongue (2)
M.A.L.T. -Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue. -Clusters of lymphoid tissue protecting epithelial of digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems. -PEYER'S PATCHES -Small Intestine epithelial lining -Aggregated Lymphoid Nodules = Peyer's P
Lymphoid Organs -Lymphoid tissue surrounded by a fibrous connective tissue capsule -Lymph nodes -Thymus -Spleen
Lymph Node -Small lymphoid organs found throughout body -Particularly concentrated at neck, axillae, groin
Lymph node structure -Trabeculae -Hilum -Afferent Lymphatics -Efferent Lymphatics
Trabeculae -Bundles of collagen fibers -Extend from capsule into interior of lymph nodes
Hilum A shallow Indentation where blood vessels and nerves Enter the lymph node
Afferent Lymphatics -Carry lymph to node from peripheral tissues. -TOWARD!
Efferent Lymphatics -Leave lymph node at hilum -Carry lymph to venous circulation AWAY!
What is the function of the lymph node? -Purifies Lymph before it returns to venous circulation -Removes debris -Removes debris, pathogens, 99% of antigens -Fixed Macrophages live in the walls of the lymphatic sinuses and eat debris and pathogens as they flow by -Macrophages are Antig
Antigen-Presentation Macrophages chew up the pathogen and place a piece of it (antigen) on their own cell surface, presenting it to nearby lymphocytes for recognition.
Thymus -Located in mediastinum -Atrophies after puberty -Diminishing effectiveness of immune system
What are the divisions of the Thymus? 1. divided into two Thymic Lobes 2. Septa divides lobes into... 3. smaller Lobules
Thymic Lobule Contains a dense outer cortex and a pale central medulla
Lymphocytes - Thymus -Divide in the Cortex -T cells migrate into Medulla -MATURE T CELLS LEAVE THYMUS by medullary blood vessels
Spleen -Contains largest collection of lymphoid tissue in the body! -Central Clean And Store Station For Blood, much like the lymph nodes perform those functions for lymph fluid
What are the Three functions of the Spleen? 1. Removal of Abnormal blood cells and other blood components by phagocytosis. 2. Storage of Iron recycled from red blood cells. 3. Initiation of Immune response by B cells and T cells -In response to antigens in circulating blood.
The spleen is known as the "filter of the blood"
The spleen is the recycling center for Red Blood Cells
Spleen is the Filter of the Blood -because of its extensive vascularization and the presence of macrophages and dendritic cells that remove microbes and other materials from the blood, including dying red blood cells.
The spleen also functions as the location of immune response to blood-borne pathogens.
What connects the stomach and spleen? Gastrosplenic ligament
Where do the Trabecular Arteries and Veins enter and leave the spleen? Hilum, branching from center to edge and back to center
Red pulp -Primarily functions as a Filtration system of the blood, using cells of the innate (nonspecific) immune response -contains many RBCs and WBCs
White pulp -Where T and B cell responses are mounted, using cells of the acquired/adaptive (specific) immune response -Dominated by T and B lymphocytes
What leads to a splenectomy? rupture of the spleen
Splenectomy -Difficult to repair rupture so spleen often removed if injured -Person can survive w/o spleen but more prone to bacterial infections, especially pneumococcal bacteria
Resistance natural or acquired ability to maintain immunity
Innate (nonspecific) immunity -does not distinguish one type of threat from another -responds same to all pathogens
Adaptive (specific) immunity -acquired through contact against particular threats -remembered responses -Antibodies
Created by: Meaagggannn