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Physiology Block 1

What are the Branches of the Nervous System? Peripheral Nervous System & Central Nervous System
What is the PNS made up of? Cranial Nerves (Nerves that travel in and out of brain) and Spinal Nerves (Travel in and out of the spine, also travel in and out muscles)
What is The CNS made up out of ? Brain and Spinal cord
What is a nerve Bundle of Axons running together OUTSIDE the CNS
What is a Tract Bundle of Axons runnng together Within the CNS
What are the Cell types of the NS Neurones and Supporting Cells
What are 2 Examples of supporting cells and their function Astroglial cells filter out toxic materials within the blood and Microglial cells which attack foreign and damaged cells.
What is myelination Myelination is the layer of lipid insulation that surrounds the axons of nerve cells
What produces Myelin Schwaan cells OUTWITH the CNS and oligodendroglial cells within the CNS
What are the 2 stages to nerve cell damage? Nerve Cell Degeneration and Nerve cell Regeneration.
What structure surrounds Axon Endonureum
What Structure Surrounds a Bundle of axons Perinureum
What structure surrounds the whole Nerve Epinureum
What happens during nerve cell Degeneration Beyond the point of damage dies and if cut through the middle of myelin sheath up until the beginning of that dies.
What happens to Schwaan cells during Degeneration They do not die, become Phagocytic cells
What Occurs during Nerve cell Regeneration Axon Begins to regrow , Schwaan cells remyelinate axons.
What problems can occur due to nerve cell damage ? Damage close to axon origin can cause muscle confusion due to a complete regrow being required. Neuromas can occur in complete limb amputation causing extreme sensitivity
What is the resting membrane potential of a Nerve cell -70mv
Why is the inside of a nerve cell negatively charged ? Contains large negatively charged molecules e.g. peptides. Action of na+/k+ pumps and action of ion channels.
if Na + and K+ are both positive why is there a overall negative charge from these pumps ? There is an uneven exchange Ration Roughly 3NA+ Out : 2K+ In.
What are the three types of Gated Ion channels Chemically , Electrically, Mechanicaly
Are Most sodium channels Gated or Ungated? Gated
Are most Potassium channels gated or ungated Ungated
What must occur for a nerve cell to be activated ? Must Receive stimulation & energy threshold must be met.
What is the trigger point for a Axon Initial segment
What is the first stage in generated an action potential ? Sodium gates open and enters through the ion concentration gradient which overrides the negative charge of the cell. (-70mv to 30mv)
What happens after the sodium gates open when generating an action potential ? Sodium gates close and Potassium gates open which causes Potassium to leave the cell , this returns the cell to a negative state
How is the AP impulse carried along an unmyelinated Axon ? Impulse travels along the axon causing sodium channels to open on a different section this causes positive ions into the cell which then continues to another section which in turn causes the previous section to return to being negative (e.g. mexican wave)
How is the AP impulse carried During Saltatory Conduction ? Initial segment is activated, Sodium can't diffuse through due to presence of myelin so impulse jumps to the nearest node, sodium gates the open here and the impulse carries on by jumpin to nodes and previous sections returning to normal.
What are the advantages of saltatory conduction ? Faster Conduction speed and it uses less energy.
What are the two Stages of the cell recovery time (Refractory period) Absolute Refractory period and Relative refractory period
What are the properties of a cell in its absolute refractory period ? Nerve cell cannot be stimulated, all sodium gates are open
What are the properties of a cell in its relative refractory period ? Nerve cell CAN be activated , needs a much higher activation energy than normal, some sodium gates are closed.
What is the first stage of synaptic transmission AP arrives at the synaptic button, arrival of the AP causes opening of electrically gated CA2+ Channels this causes calcium ions to rush into the synaptic button.
What occurs in Synaptic transmissions after CA2+ Rushes into the synaptic button ? Exocytosis occurs, Presynaptic vesicles move towards the presynaptic membrane, vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane and neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft
What happens after the N.Transmitter is released into the synaptic cleft ? N'Transmitter diffuses across the gap and briefly binds to receptors on the post-synaptic cleft
What happens to the Neurotransmitter after it has binded with the receptor on the post synaptic cleft ? it is broken down by enzymes, segments reabsorbed by presynaptic membrane for recycling.
What are the Two Types of Neurotransmitter ? Exitatory and Inhibitory
Describe an Exitatory Neurotransmitter Activates receiving cell (E.g. Acetylcholine) Exitatory Post-Synaptic Potential is generated.
Describe the effects of an EPSP Graded- Size can Change , Local - Charged doesn't spread that far.
Describe Inhibitory neurotransmission Switches of receiving cell, (E.g. Gamma-Amino Butryic acid) opens Chloride Ion channels making cell more negative, Local and Graded effects apply Generates IPSP's
What are the two types of summation Spacial Summation & Temporal Summation
Describe Spacial Summation Adds up inputs (EPSP & IPSP) across surface at one time
Describe Temporal Summation Chemical inputs (EPSP & IPSP) added up over a brief period
What is a motor neurone a nerve cell that communicates with muscle cells
What does a Motor Neurone contain instead of a synapse ? Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)
What is a motor unit Single Motor unit and the cells that it controls.
Where are smaller Motor units required ? in muscles that require precise control
what would be an example of small motor units Extra-Ocular muscle control (Eyes)
Where are Large motor units required ? In Muscles that require strength rather than precision
What are examples of Drugs affecting the NMJ Neuromuscular Blockers and Ant-Cholinesterases
What are the Properties of a Neuromuscular blocker Prevents ACh from binding to the receptor , it is a temporary attatchment and is used in surgeries as a muscle relaxant
What are the properties of an Anti-Cholinesterase Prevents ACh breakdown , attacks ACh receptors and boosts levels of ACh
What are the properties of Somatic Nervous control Controls voluntary activity, skeletal neurones are somatic
What are the properties of Autonomic Nervous control Involuntary Subconscious control, e.g. cardiac and smooth muscle , has two further branches of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic control.
Describe the Parasympathetic System Processes involving Anabolic Reactions , slows processes down and restores energy stores, it is precise and targets individual organs or systems
Describe Sympathetic Nervous control Involved in catabolic reactions, increases heart rate and blood pressure. it is also globally activated affecting the entire body, and divergence takes place where neurones communicate with other neurones
Describe Somatic Nervous Control Neurones in the CNS Have axons which release Neurotransmitter directly into target muscle.
Describe Parasympathetic Autonomic Control A cell body in the CNS has an axon that communicates with another cell body close to the target muscle which then connects via a NMJ to a cardiac or smooth muscle . ACh is released at both stages
Describe Sympathetic nervous control a muscle Cell body in the CNS Has an Axon that extends to a Synapse close to the CNS which then extends to the muscle. ACH is released at the Synapse and Noradrenaline is released at the NMJ
Describe Sympathetic Nervous control with the adrenal gland Cell body in the CNS extends to the Adrenal gland where i communicates by the release of ACh this stimulates the release of Adrenaline and Noradrenaline ino the blood stream
Created by: davidm90143



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