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Chapter 4 Test


What type of patient is defined as a patient between birth and the age of 18 years old? Pediatric
What is the name for the patient who 28 days old? Neonate
What type of patient is between the ages 2-18 months? Infant
What type of patient is between the ages 19-30 months? Toddler
What type of patient is between the ages 31 months to 5 years? Preschooler
What type of patient is between the ages 6-12 years? School age
What type of patient is between the ages 13-18 years? Adolescent
In pediatric surgery the surgical team is forced to focus on what type of needs? Physiological
What age is at risk for hypothermia, bradycardia and acidosis? 6 months and younger
Suture ridges/fontanels are palpable until what age? 6 months
What fontanel closes by 3 months? Posterior
What fontanel closes by 19 months? Anterior
At what age are pediatric patients able to produce tears? 2-3 months
The auditory tube in pediatric patients are what? more horizontal, wider, and shorter
What sinuses are present at birth? Ethmoid Maxillary
At what age does the frontal sinuses develop? 7 years
What sinus develop after puberty? Sphenoid
What is another name for Sphenoid sinuses? Craniofacial
At what age can pediatric patients start producing saliva? 3 months
What is another name for baby teeth? Deciduous
How many baby teeth do pediatric patients have? 20
At what age does breast tissue begin to develop? 9-13 years
Infant to 3-4 months are dependent on breathing through what? Nose
Toddlers prefer what type of breathing? abdominal
What is the name for the end of the long bone? Epiphyses
What is another name for the Epiphyses? Growth Plate
What is the name for the shaft of the long bones? Diaphysis
At what age is the epiphyses closed? 20 years
At what age does the tested descent? 1 year
What type of anesthesia is recommended for pediatric patients? Rapid induction
The OR need to be kept __________while the induction of a pediatric patient is taking place. Quiet
What are the critical parameters to monitor for the pediatric patient? Temperature Urine output Cardiac function Oxygenation
Neonates are not usually catharized due to the high risk of what? trauma to the urethra
What artery is most commonly used to monitor cardiac function in neonates? Umbilical
What artery is most commonly used to monitor cardiac function in infants and children? Radial
When there are no cardiac abnormalities a CVA is inserted percutaneously into what vein in older children? Subclavian or internal jugular
When there are no cardiac abnormalities a CVA is inserted into what preferred vein in neonates and infants? External Jugular
How is a patients O2 Sat read? Pulse oximetry
What are the two most common types of shock seen in all patient age groups? Septic Hypovolemic
What type of shock is most commonly seen in infants and children? Septic
What happens to a neonates heart rate when affected by hypovolemic shock? Bradycardia
What happens to an adults heart rate when affected by hypovolemic shock? Tachycardia
What type of shock is caused by a gram negative bacteria ? Septic
In infants what is the most common cause of hypovolemic shock? Dehydration
Quick replacement of fluid and blood is the main treatment for what type of shock? Hypovolemic
The infusion of colloid solutions is the initial treatment for what type of shock? Septic
Why are newborns and infants not able to tolerate dehydration? Immature kidneys
By what day after birth do newborns have the same common aerobic and anaerobic GI bacterial flora that is found in adults? 10th
What is the initial sign of a postoperative infection? Fever
The most common sites of postoperative infection are what? Lungs Surgical Wound Urinary tract Vasscular access sites
What type of medication should not be administered to newborns because it causes kernicterus? Bactrim or Septra
An excess of bilirubin in blood is called what? Kernicterus
What type of medication should not be given to newborns due to the infants skin turning gray from drug toxicity? Chloramphenicol
What is the name of the synthetic form of an antibiotic originally isolated from Streptomyces Venezuela and is associated with the cause of "gray syndrome" Chloromycetin
Bactrim and septra or examples of what type of medication? Sulfonamides
Chloromycetin is an example of what type of medication? Chloramphenicol
What type of medication does not need to be administered to children because it causes staining and hypoplasia of the enamel of developing teeth? Tetracycline
What is the leading cause of death in children age 1-15? Accidents
What is the leading cause of the majority of pediatric morbidity and mortality in children? Head Trauma
What is the major cause of trauma in children? MVA's
What is the first priority in trauma patients? open airway
What is a common response to injury by children? Hyperventilation
What does hyperventilation result in, in children? Gastric Dilation
How is gastric dilation resolved? NG tube
What is the most common bone fractured during birth? Clavical
What is the term for difficult delivery? Dystocia
What is formed due to birth trauma and the injury of the sternocleidomastoid muscle? Torticollis
A patient whose body weight is 100 pounds greater than ideal body weight is considered what? Obese
What type of instruments should be used for obese patients? Long and Deep
What is bariatric surgery? Weight loss Surgery
When doing bariatric surgery the patient should be placed in what position to expand the lung volume and aid in ventilation. Reverse Trendelenburg
What position has the patients head up and feet down? Reverse Trendelenburg
What type of device should be placed on the patients legs to prevent a DVT while in reverse Trendelenburg? SCD's
What are the three most common complications after gastric bypass surgery? Abdominal catastrophes Internal Hernia Acute gastric distention
Gastric Bypass patients are at an increased risk for what? Internal hernia Volvulus
What type of arthritis is common in the back, hips and knees of obese patients? Osteoarthritis
What hormone aids the conversion of sugars and carbohydrates into molecules that can be used by the body? Insulin
What type of endocrine disorder affects the pancreatic production of insulin and glucose tolerance in the body? Diabetes Mellitus
Type one diabetes is what type of diabetes mellitus? IDDM
What does IDDM stand for? Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Type two diabetes is what type of diabetes mellitus? NIDDMN
What does NIDDM stand for? Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
What type of diabetes is when the pancreas produces little or no insulin? Type 1
What type of diabetes is when the pancreas produces different amounts of insulin? Type 2
What type of meter is used to measure the blood glucose level of a patient? Glucometer
What type of stockings are put on Diabetic patients to prevent thromboembolism? antiembolic
What type of operative intervention is done for emergencies such as an ectopic pregnancy, appendicitis, trauma, injury or incompetent cervix in pregnant women? Immediate
What type of operative intervention is done for surgical procedures that are delayed until after the second or third trimester? Urgent
What type of operative intervention is done for pregnant women that are defiantly delayed until after the delivery and the mother has recovered? Elective
What are the three types of operative intervention for pregnant patients? Immediate Urgent Elective
What trimester are abdominal procedures best performed in pregnant patients? Second Trimester
What are the two most common no obstetric emergencies in the pregnant patient? Appendicitis Cholecystitis
What are the three important items to remember when giving pregnant patients general anesthesia? Preterm labor Fetal Death Low birth weight
What type of anesthesia is recommended for pregnant patients? short-acting
What is the most important consideration in the delivery of anesthetic agents in the pregnant patients? prevent preterm labor
The CST should have the instrumentation, supplies and equipment immediately available in the event what type of surgery should be performed in pregnant patients? Cesarean Section
What is the degree of function of an immune system that is designed to keep a patient free from infection by pathogens? Immunocompetence
A patient with aids have tested positive for what? HIV
Individuals that are over the age of 65 are considered a ___________ patient. Geriatric
Geriatric patients are over the age of ________. 65
What Trauma level center has 2 or more trauma OR's and has 24-hr Traumas? 1
What trauma level center treats the severely injured but does not have level one resources? 2
What trauma level center offers limited care? 3
What trauma level center provides advanced trauma life support and is responsible for stabilizing the patient to get them to a lower level trauma center? 4
What syndrome is caused from drug toxicity and can result in the appearance of gray skin? Grays syndrome
What are the two main postoperative complications of obese patients? Evisceration Wound Dehiscence
What is the term for the twisting of the bowel? volvulus
What is the term for telescoping of the bowel? Intussusception
What are some examples of Immunocompromised diseases? Multiple sclerosis RA Lupus
What is the term for venous compression boots? SCD's
Patients 6 months or younger lack the ability to _________. Shiver
What organ is larger in infants? Liver
What is the mechanism of injury? Kinematics
What type of shock intensifies the effects of acidosis? Hypothermia
What is the hour that trauma patients must be treated? Golden Hour
The golden hour is _____hour from the time of the injury. One
What organ is commonly injured in MVA's? Spleen
What syndrome is caused by chloromycetin? Grays
What uses the Glasgow coma scale? RTS
What does RTS stand for? Revised Trauma Score
What type of mask is needed for airborne and droplet patients? N95
What type of evidence must be carefully handled and can not be picked up with any type of metal instrument? Bullet
Created by: lmlayton
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