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BIO 169 Exam 2

Fibrous Pericardium outermost layer; protects from overfilling
Serous Pericardium innermost layer; parietal and visceral membrane
Parietal Membrane lines inside of fibrous pericardium facing the heart
Visceral Membrane covers the surface of the heart itself (same as endocardium)
Pericardial Cavity contains serous fluid to reduce friction
What Has 3 Layers? the heart wall
What Has 2 Layer & Cavity pericardium
3 Layers of the Heart Wall epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
Epicardium outermost layer of connective tissue on surface of heart
Myocardium multiple layers of cardiac muscle; thickest and performs the work of the heart
Endocardium inside, covers the valves; thin layer of squamous epithelium
AV Valves valve between each atrium and its ventricle
Semilunar Valves valve at the exit of each ventricle
The Cardiac Skeleton fibrous rings of heart, prevents stretching, stabilizes valves, insulating barrier separating atria and ventricles
Insulating Barrier of The Cardiac Skeleton prevents electrical impulses from reaching the ventricles other than the normal conduction pathway
5 Areas for Heart Sounds aortic, pulmonic, erb's point(S1&S2), tricuspid, mitral (All Patients Eventually Trust Me)
Heart S1 av valves closing (lub)
Heart S2 semilunar valves closing (dub)
Valvular Insufficiency incompetent valve; allows blood to regurgitate back into the chamber
Heart Murmur sound of regurgitation; turbulence of backflow from incompetent heart valves
Valvular Stenosis stenotic valve is narrowed and causes the heart to strain
End Arteries do not overlap with arteries coming from opposite direction
Coronary Arteries deliver oxygenated blood to myocardium
Cardiac Veins collect deoxygenated blood from myocardium
R. Coronary Artery Supplies Blood to R atrium Part of L atrium Most of R ventricle Inferior part of L ventricle
L. Coronary Artery Supplies Blood to L atrium Most of L ventricle Most of interventricular septum
L. Coronary Artery Branches into Anterior Interventricular Artery/Left Anterior Descending artery (LAD) Circumflex artery
R. Arteries of Heart R. Coronary Artery R. Marginal Artery Post. Interventricular Artery
L. Arteries of Heart L. Coronary Artery L. Circumflex Artery (LCX) Ant. Interventriculat Artery (LAD-widow maker)
Veins of Heart Great Cardiac Vein Middle Cardiac Vein Coronary Sinus
Coronary Sinus end point of all cardiac veins; dumps deoxygenated right atrium
Coronary Ischemia due to a fatty deposit called a plaque or a blood clot called a thrombus
#1 Cause of Death in US coronary disease
Atherosclerosis narrowed arteries d/t build up of cholesterol or fatty deposits
Angina pectoris spasm of blocked artery or heart demands more O2 than available; stops w/rest
Myocardial Infarction (heart attack) blood flow completely blocked by fatty deposit or blood clot, resulting in death of myocardial cells
Most Common Cause of MI coronary thrombosis
Measurable Enzymes for MI CK-MB (creatine phosphokinase) Cardiac Troponin T Cardiac Troponin I
What Promotes Collateral Circulation? regular exercise
Arterial Anastomoses connect posterior and anterior interventricular arteries
Pulmonary Circuit carries blood to and from gas exchange surfaces of lungs
Systemic Circuit carries blood to and from the body
Rhythmicity regular heart beat
Automaticity contracts spontaneously via pacemaker cells; does not depend on extrinsic nerves
Cardiac Myocytes Small size Will synchronize to one another Single, central nucleus Branching interconnections between cells Intercalated discs connect them
Intercalated Discs linked by gap junctions for ion movement, convey force of contraction, propagate action potentials
2 Types of Cardiac Myocytes conductive cells and contractile cells
Conductive Cells Electricity messengers; form the nodes and branches which electricity travels
Contractile Cells systole; produce the actual muscle contractions of the atria and ventricles, calcium dependent
SA Node (ALWAYS FIRING) highest rate of spontaneous depolarization= Cardiac Pacemaker (sets pace), causes both atria to contract
Sinus Rhythm normal electrical pattern established by SA node
Pacemaker prepotential Nodes are always in a state of slow depolarization, Constant and slow influx of Na+ causes nodes to try to approach threshold, Action potential results due to spontaneous depolarization of SA node
AV Node (PATIENTLY WAITING) of AV cells slows the signal from internodal tracts – takes 100 msec, Delay allows atria to contract before ventricles contract
Max action potential limit 230 min, higher=damage
AV Bundle of His Connects the atria to the ventricles electrically
L and R Bundle Branches Send impulse through moderator band to papillary muscles of R ventricle
Purkinje Fibers Fast conductors that reach all ventricular myocytes
ECG/EKG Record of electrical events in the heart; Measures wave of depolarization
Transmembrane potential Electrodes record the voltage difference between the inside and outside of the cell
towards a lead positive deflection above the baseline
away from a lead negative deflection below the baseline
P wave = Atrial systole Atrial depolarization; At end of P wave, both atria have depolarized, which causes atria to contract
QRS complex = Ventricular systole Ventricular depolarization
T wave = Ventricular diastole Ventricular repolarization; end of T wave, both ventricles have repolarized, which causes the ventricles to relax
P-R Interval From beginning of atrial depolarization to beginning of ventricular depolarization
Q-T Interval Time for both ventricular depolarization and repolarization to occur; Rough estimate of the average ventricular action potential
S-T Interval Time that both ventricles are completely depolarized
Elevated P wave atrial enlargement
QRS elevated ventricular enlargement
Tall and pointed T wave myocardial ischemia
Long P-Q interval Blockage of normal conduction pathway
Long Q-T segment Unidentifiable myocardial damage
Systole contraction/squeezing=pumping
Diastole relaxation=filling
Atrial Systole Atrial depolarization + contraction
Early ventricular systole Isovolumetric ventricular contraction (S1-lub)
Late ventricular systole Ventricular ejection
Early ventricular diastole Isovolumetric ventricular relaxation (S2-dub)
Late ventricular diastole Passive ventricular filling
Cardiac Output (CO) amount of blood the heart pumps in 1 minute
Heart Rate (HR) Number of times the heart beats in 1 minute; men=64-72bpm women=72-80bpm
Stroke Volume (SV) Amount of blood ejected by heart with each beat
Bradycardia pulse rate slower than 60 bpm
Tachycardia resting heart rate over 100 bpm
Norepinephrine Speeds up heart rate (more O2); sympathetic
Acetylcholine Slows heart rate via the Vagus n. (CN X); parasympathetic
Factors affecting stroke volume preload, contractility, afterload
Ejection Fraction Volume of fluid ejected from a chamber with each contraction; ventricular ejection is 60-80% of blood volume
Preload tension/stretch due to filling of blood in ventricles
Contractility force of ventricular contraction (More stretch will cause greater force to eject blood)
Afterload the forces like pressure that the ventricles have to overcome to get the blood out
Right Sided Heart Failure Vena cava backup and swelling; Systemic edema (esp legs and feet), enlarged liver + spleen, ascites, jugular venous distension (JVD)
Left Sided Heart Failure Pulmonary backup and drown; Shortness of breath, pulmonary edema, coughing
Ionotropic agents Affect contractility (force) of the heart
Chronotropic agents Factors which influence heart rate (pulse)
Created by: sschultz18



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