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outline 4

Comparative Physiology- Renner Lecture 4

Diffusion net movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
Concentration gradient (C) the difference in solute concentration between the two compartments
net rate of diffusion. the difference between random movements from one side of a membrane to the other (depends on concentration gradient aka driving force for diffusion)
Fick's law of diffusion Q= deltaC.P.A/mw(solute).x
Osmosis diffusion of water across a semi permeable membrane along its concentration gradient. Presence of solute decreases concentration of water (bc high conc of solute).
when does the system reach equilibrium? when hydrostatic pressure=osmotic pressure
hydrostatic pressure (water pressure) pressure exerted by water. Def from google
tonicity relationship between solute concentrations between compartments
how can osmotic pressure be quantified? by knowing the concentrations of osmotically active particles
isotonic same concentration in the 2 compartments
hypotonic less concentrated relative to the solute. Water concentration is higher.
hypertonic higher number of solute molecules, lower concentration of water.
membrane's key features with respect to membrane potential presence of channels that allow K+ diffusion, minimal diffusion of Na+, membrane is impermeable to protein A-
law of electroneutrality bulk solutions have a balance of +/- charge
how does diffusion of K+ occur? squid axon passive (no ATP) across aqueous pores across membrane formed by protein channels
Na+/K+ pump, why is it important? prevents the loss of concentration gradients of Na+ and K+ when K+ is lost and Na+ is entered. Prevents concentration gradient from diminishing.
how does Na+/K+ work? originally Na+ is favored to go in to the cell because the concentration of it outside the cell is higher. K+ is favored outside the cell because it has a high concentration on the outside. Na+/K+ uses ATP active transport to get 3 Na+ out, 2 K+ in
what is Na+/K+ pump composed of? 2 subunits, catalytic subunit alpha, and glycoprotein beta in a alpha2beta2 arrangement.
depolarization, how it affects Na+/K+ pump making the inside of the cell more positive with respect to the outside. (normally inside is negative). it increases pump rate.
accounts for 33% of energy use by cell? Na+/K+ pump
Created by: rusulali97



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