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Section 1

TermDefinition
TCP - Transmission Control Protocol OSI Layer 4, “ Reliable” delivery • Recovery from errors • Can manage out-of-order messages or retransmissions
Non-ephemeral ports Permanent port numbers • Ports 0 through 1,023 • Usually on a server or service
Ephemeral ports Temporary port numbers • Ports 1,024 through 65,536 • Determined in real-time by the clients
ICMP- Internet Control Message Protocol • “Text messaging” for your network devices • Another protocol carried by IP - Not used for data transfer
tcp/22 SSH - Secure Shell • Encrypted communication link - tcp/22 • Looks and acts the same as Telnet
udp/53 DNS - Domain Name System Converts names to IP addresses
tcp/25 SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol • Used to send mail from a device to a mail server • Commonly configured on mobile devices and email clients • Other protocols are used for clients to receive email • IMAP, POP3
tcp/22 SFTP - Secure FTP Uses the SSH File Transfer Protocol Provides file system functionality Resuming interrupted transfers, directory listings, remote file removal
tcp/20 (active mode data) or tcp/21 (control) FTP - File Transfer Protocols Transfers files between systems • Authenticates with a username and password • Full-featured functionality (list, add, delete, etc.)
udp/69 TFTP – Trivial File Transfer Protocol • Very simple file transfer application • Read files and write files • No authentication - Not used on production systems
TCP/23 Telnet - Telecommunication Network • Login to devices remotely • Console access • In-the-clear communication • Not the best choice for production systems
udp/67, udp/68 DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol • Automated configuration of IP address, subnet mask and other options
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol
udp/161 SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol
SNMP • v1 – The original • Structured tables, in-the-clear • v2 – A good step ahead • Data type enhancements, bulk transfers • Still in-the-clear • v3 – The new standard • Message integrity, authentication, encryption
tcp/3389 RDP - Remote Desktop Protocol Share a desktop from a remote location Remote Desktop Services on many Windows versions • Can connect to an entire desktop or just an application
udp/123 NTP - Network Time Protocol • Switches, routers, firewalls, servers, workstations • Every device has its own clock
tcp/5060 and tcp/5061 SIP - Session Initiation Protocol • Voice over IP (VoIP) signaling
tcp/445 SMB - Server Message Block Protocol used by Microsoft Windows • File sharing, printer sharing • Also called CIFS (Common Internet File System)
TCP/110 POP3 - Post Office Protocol version 3 Receive mail into a mail client
Tcp/143 IMAP4 - Internet Message Access Protocol v4 A newer mail client protocol
tcp/389 LDAP - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol - A newer mail client protocol
tcp/636 LDAPS - Lightweight Directory Access ProtocoL SECURE LDAP over SSL
tcp/1720 H.323 - ITU Telecommunica5on H.32x protocol series Voice over IP signaling
Layer 1 Physical Signaling, cabling, connectors (Cable, NIC, Hub)
Layer 2 Data Link The Switching layer (Frame, MAC Address, EUI-48, EUI-64, Switch
Layer 3 Network The routing Layer (IP Address, router, packet)
Layer 4 Transport The post office layer (TCP SEGMENT, UDP DATAGRAM)
Layer 5 Session Communication between devices( Control protocols, tunneling protocols)
Layer 6 Presentation Encoding and encryption (SSL/TLS)
Layer 7 The layer we see (Google Mail, Twitter, Facebook)
Preamble 7 bytes 56 alternating ones and zeros used for synchronization
SFD 1 bytes Start Frame Delimiter - designates the end of the preamble
Destination MAC Address 6 bytes Ethernet MAC address of the Destination device
Source MAC Address 6 bytes Ethernet MAC address of the source device
EtherType 2 bytes Describes the data contained the payload
Payload 46 - 1500 bytes Layer 3 and higher data
FCS 4 bytes Frame Check Sequence - CRC checksum of the frame
Created by: Riku254