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Microbiology Exam #1

Chapters 1,3-5,7,8

Major groups of microorganisms Archaea bacteria algae protozoa fungus helminth virus
Classification of BACTERIA Prokaryotes unicellular, lack a nuclei, smaller than eukaryotes some extreme environments reproduce asexually bacteria cell walls
Classification of Archaea Prokaryotes unicellular halophiles thermophiles share phenotypic characteristics with bacteria
Classification of ALGAE unicellular or multicellular photosynthetic simple reproductive structures pigmentation composition of cell wall
Classification of PROTOZOA single celled eukaryotes live in h2o or animal host most are asexual and sexual reproduction capable of locomotion (cilia or flagella)
Classification of FUNGI eukaryotic obtain food from other organism molds-multicellular grow as long filaments yeasts-unicellular
Classification of HELMINTHS parasitic worms eukaryotic multicellular complex life cycles many macroscopic many ways of entry
Classification of VIRUS not living acellular (proteins and nucleic acids) must have living cell to reproduce no metabolism
What is the impact of microorganisms on environment (photosynthesis)? bacteria is ubiquitous (everywhere) bacteria and algae more than 70% of earths photosynthesis majority of the oxygen to the atmosphere
What is the impact of microorganisms on humans (infectious disease control)? outnumber human cells 10 to 1 nearly 2000 different microbes can cause diseases typically on harmful microorganisms examples: Heart disease, cancer, stroke, pulmonary disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, flu, pneumonia, kidney disease
Who is Louis Pasteur? developed the theory of spontaneous generation stating that -living things can originate from anything non-living -sterile-completely free of life forms living things discriminate between optical isomers developed vaccines for anthrax
What are the steps of the scientific method? 1-Observations 2-develop a hypothesis 3-Experiment including control groups 4-Analyze the data 5-Draw a conclusion, reject or accept hypothesis
Who is Robert Koch? developed infectious disease and the rise of pure cultures simple staining techniques first photomicrograph of bacteria steam to sterilize media aseptic techniques microbial growth
Nomenclature NAMING of living things appropiately
Taxonomy the science of CLASSIFYING living beings
phylogeny taxonomic scheme that represents the natural relatedness between groups of living things
Domain BACTERIA Prokaryotic cyanobacteria Chlamydias Spirochetes gram positive bacteria endospore producers gram negative bacteria fatty acids with ester linkages flagella, hook, rings, and hollow filament
Domain ARCHAEA Methane producers Prokaryotes that live in extreme salt Prokaryotes that live extreme heat singular, circular chromosomes flagella, solid fimbrial like structure long chain, branched hydrocarbons with ether linkages
Domain EUKARYA EUKARYOTES plants, animals, fungi, protozoa several, linear chromosomes flagella, 9" + 2" microtubule arrangement fatty acids with ester linkages
Binomial system a combination of the genus and species name -genus name-capitalized -species-lower case
Which of the following is not considered a microorganism? -algae -bacterium -protozoan -mushroom Mushroom
Which process involves the deliberate alteration of an organism's genetic material? -bioremediation -biotechnology -decomposition -recombinant DNA technology recombinant DNA technology
Which of the following parts was absent from Leeuwenhock 's microscopes? -focusing screw -lens -specimen holder -condenser Condenser
Abiogenesis refers to the -spontaneous generation of organisms from nonliving matter -development of life forms from preexisting life forms -development of aseptic techniques -germ theory of disease spontaneous generation of organisms from nonliving matter
A hypothesis can be defined as -a belied based on knowledge -knowledge based on belief -a scientific explanation that is subject to testing -a theory that has been thoroughly tested a scientific explanation that is subject to testing
When a hypothesis has been thoroughly supported by long term study and data, it is considered -a law -a speculation -a theory -proved a theory
Which is the correct order of the taxonomic categories, going from most specific to most general? species genus family order class phylum kingdom domain
Which of the following are not eukaryotic? -bacteria -archaea -protozoa -both a and b bacteria and archaea
Order the following items by size, sm to lg atom protein adenovirus rickettsia coccus-shaped bacterium white blood cell amoeba helminths
The five I's inoculation incubation isolation inspection identification
inoculation producing a culture, microbes must be provided with all of their required nutrients in an artificial medium
Incubation microbial growth-increases in a population of microbes liquid medium-cloudiness solid medium- discrete colony or a biofilm
isolation goal is to get colonies that consist of just one species pure culture subclture streak plate method
inspection colonies and broth culture are observed for growth characteristics that could be useful for analyzing the specimen content
identification determination of the type of microbe, usually to the level of species
three categories of Media classification physical state chemical composition functional type
physical state liquid semisolid solid can convert to liquid solid that can't be liquidified
chemical composition chemically definied complex
functional type general purpose enriched selective differential anaerobic growth specimen transport assay enumeration
Pure culture container of medium that contains only a single known species or type of microorganism
mixed culture container that holds 2 or more identified, easily differentiated species or microorganisms
contaminated culture culture that was once pure or mixed that now contains contaminants or unwanted microbes of uncertain identity
streak plate method small droplet of culture or sample is spread across the surface of a medium with an innoculating loop. gradually thins out the sample and separates cells
pour plate method method of choice for counting the number of colony forming bacteria present in a liquid specimen
serial dilutions a series of sequential dilutions used to reduce a dense culture of cells to a more usable concentration
microbial dimensions small to largest virus bacteria yeast red blood cell protozoan
magnification on a microscope apparent enlargement of a specimen clear glass sphere can magnify most objects
resolution on a microscope the capacity of an optical system to distinguish or separate 2 adjacent objects or points from one another
contrast on a microscope differences in intensity between 2 objects, or an object and its background
brightfield microscope (compound) 2 sets of lens and ocular lens objective magnification x ocular magnification= total mag
phase contrast microscope improves the contrast of a sample without the use of a stain visualization of live samples image of dark cells on a light background
dark field microscope light reaches the specimen from the sides image appears light on a dark background excellent for observing motility
Cationic dyes basic dyes stain acidic structures positive stain cells are typically negative
anionic dyes acidic dyes background, repelled by acidic negatively charged components on bacteria cell wall negative stain
gram stain gram positive is purple gram negative is pink crystal violet as primary stain iodine is mordant ethanol is a decolorizer safranin is a counterstain
The term culture refers to the _____ growth of microorganisms in __________. -rapid, an incubator -macroscopic, media -microscopic, the body -artificial, colonies macroscopic, media
a mixed culture contains 2 or more known species
Resolution is _____ with a longer wavelength of light. -improved -worsened -not changed -not possible worsened
A real image is produced by the -ocular -objective -condenser -eye objective
A microscope that has a total magnification of 1500x when using the oil immersion objective has an ocular of what power? -150x -1.5x -15x -30x 15x
The specimen for an electron microscope is always -stained with dyes -sliced into thin sections -killed -viewed directly killed
Motility i sbest observed with a -hanging drop preparation -negative stain -streak plate -flagellar stain hanging drop preparation
Bacteria tend to stain more readily with cationic positively charged dyes because bacterial surfaces -contain large amounts of alkaline substances -contain large amounts of acidic substances -are neutral -have thick cell walls contain large amounts of acidic substances
a fastidious organism must be grown on what type of medium? -general purpose medium -differential medium -defined medium -enriched medium both defined medium and enriched medium can be used
Bacteria and archaea vs. Eukaryotes bacteria can reproduce, metabolize, and nutrient processing bacteria does not wind DNA and archaea does bacteria and archaea have nuclear material free in cytoplasm eukaryotes have a nucles and wind with DNA bacteria cell wall made up of peptidoglycan
Morphology and arrangement of cells 3 basic shapes coccus-round bacillus-oval spirillium-spiral diplo-2 tetrads-groups of four staphylo-grapes strepto-chains of a few to a hundred sarcina-cube packet of 8,16 or more
Gram positive cell wall vs. gram negative cell wall -gram positive peptidoglycan layer is thick, has teichoic acids and lipoteichoic acids -gram negative is thin and has porins, periplasm, and lipoproteins
Mycoplasma groups of pathogenic bacteria membrane is stabilized by sterols and is resistant to lysis ex: chlamydia
mycobacterium lipids (mycolic acid) in the cell wall increase survival ex:TB
glycocalyces gelatinous, sticky substance surrounding outside of the cell polysaccharides or polypeptides 2 types can accumulate, capsule or slime layer biofilms
Flagella structure responsible for movement long structures that extend beyond cell surface are not present on all bacteria filament, hook, and basal body
monotrichous (polar) single flagellum
Lophotrichous (polar) small bunches or tufts
amphitrichous (polar) flagella at both poles of the cell
peritrichous flagella are dispersed randomly over the surface of the cell
atrichous no flagella
fimbriae -sticky, bristle like projections -used by bacteria to adhere to one another and to substance in environment -serve an important function in biofilms
pili (sex pilus) -special type of fimbria -fimbriae<pili<flagella -only a few per cell -sex pilus/transfer DNA from one cell to another -some pili can provide motility -controlled genetically in G bacteria
endospores structure produced by some bacteria that can withstand hostile conditions and facilitate survival can resist: heating, drying, freezing, radiation, and chemicals gram positive bacillus
endospores gram positive bacillus and medical importance ex: anthrax, botulism, tetanus -some diseases are related to the persistence and resistance of their spores -endospores are constant intruders where sterility and cleanliness are important -hosp must protect against endospores in wounds
methanogens -convert CO2 and H2 into methane CH4 -common inhabitants of anaerobic swamp mud, bottom of lake -gas produced in swamps may become source of fuel -contribute to greenhouse gas
hyperthermophiles -flourish at temps between 80 and 113 degrees Celsius and cannot grow below 50 degrees Celsius -live in volcanic waters and soils -often salt and acid tolerant
psychrophiles adapted to grow at very low temps
halophiles -require salt to grow -can multiply in 36% NaCl that would destroy most cells -exist inland seas, salt lakes, salt mines -use red pigment to synthesize ATP in presence of light
Parts of a microscope objective lens-magnifications illuminator-steady light source instead of a mirror condensor-focus light onto the specimen, useful at highest power diaphragm-rotating disk under stage used in varying the intensity and size of a cone of light
classification of bacteria divisions diagnostic scheme subgroups
divisions gracilicutes-gram neg cell walls, thin firmicutes-gram pos cell walls, thick and strong tenericutes-lack a cell wall, soft mendosicutes-archaea
diagnostic scheme gram pos gram neg bacteria without cell walls
subgroups cell shape arrangements oxygen usage (aerobic, anaerobic, facultative)
gram stain and how it works developed by Hans Christian Gram 2 major groups of bacteria, gram + and gram- dif. lie in the structure of the cell envelope iodine forms with crystal violet in peptidoglycan layer for gram + strips lipids in outer mem and decolors layer in gram -
Which of the following is not found in all bacteria cells? -cytoplasmic membrane -a nucleoid -ribosomes -actin-like cytoskeleton actin like cytoskeleton
Pili are tubular shafts in ____bacteria that serve as a means of _____. gram negative, genetic exchange
An example of a glycocalyx is -a capsule -a pilus -an outer membrane -a cell wall a capsule
Which of the following is a primary bacterial cell wall function? -transport -motility -support -adhesion support
Which of the following is present in both gram + and gram - cell walls -an outer membrane -peptidoglycan -teichoic acid -lipopolysaccharides peptidoglycan
Darkly stained granules are connected crystals of _____ that are found in _____ PO4, Corynebacterium
Bacterial endospores usually function in -reproduction -survival -protein synthesis -storage survival
A bacterial arrangement in packets of eight cells is described as a -micrococcus -diplococcus -tetrad -sarcina sarcina
To which division of bacteria does E. coli belong? -Tenericutes -Gracilicutes -Firmicutes -Mendosicutes Gracilicutes
Which stain is used to distinguish differences between the cell walls of medically important bacteria? -simple stain -acridine orange stain -gram stain -negative stain gram stain
Mycoses fungal infections of humans and animalssaprobes
saprobes vs. parasitic saprobes feed primarily on organic detritus from dead organisms parasites derive nutrients from the cells and tissues of a host
sexual life cycle -strains of different mating types must meet (hyphae or mycelium) for sexual spore formation -allow for genetic variation -usually microscopic
asexual life cycle -fungi are classified by their asexual spores -sporangiospores and conidospores
Sporangiospores formed by successive cleavages within a sporangium (spore bearing sac)
Conidospores free spores not enclosed by a spore bearing sac
superficial mycoses fungi colonize the hair, skin, or nails and infect only the surface layers
subcutaneous mycoses fungi colonize deeper layers of skin
systemic mycoses fungal growth in internal organs of the body, such as lungs -subclassified as primary or secondary infections
Locomotion of Protists pseudopod flagella cilia undulating membrane
pseudopod false feet serve as feeding structures
flagella vary in number from one to several
cilia distributed over the entire surface of the cell in characteristic patterns
life cycle of protists Trophozoite Cyst
Trophozoite -motile and feeding stage -requires ample food and moisture to remain active
Cyst -dormant, resting stage -important factor in spread of disease cell wall (cuticle) is tough -formed when conditions become unfavorable for growth and feeding
malaria a protist disease caused by Plasmodium spp.
Plasmodium -is a genus of unicellular eukaryotes that are obligate parasites of vertebrates and insects -life cycle involves development of blood feeding insect host which then injects parasites into a vertebrate host
phylum platyhelminthes all flatworms -class cestoda (tape worms) -class trematoda (flukes)
phylum Nematoda roundworms, hookworms, pinworms
developmental stages of helminths fertilized egg-environment larval stage-intermediate host adult stage-definitive host
intermediate (secondary) host the host in which larval development occurs
Definitive (final) host host in which adulthood and mating occur
classification of helminths -shape -size -degree of development of organs -presence of hooks, suckers, other special structures -mode of reproduction -kinds of hosts -appearance of eggs and larvae
Vectors animals that carry pathogens -mechanical-carried outside the body -biological-carried inside the body
disease vectors 2 classes of arthropod -arachnida -insecta
Both flagella and cilia are found primarily in -algae -protozoa -fungi -both a and c protozoa
Features of the nuclear envelope include -ribosomes -a double membrane structure -pores that allow communication with the cytoplasm b and c all of these ribosomes double membrane structure pores that allow communication with the cytoplasm
The cell wall is found in which eukaryotes -fungi -algae -protozoa -a and b fungi and algae
Yeasts are ____ fungi, and molds are ____ fungi. unicellular, filamentous
Algae generally contain some type of -spore -chlorophyll -locomotor organelle -toxin chlorophyll
Almost all protozoa have a -locomotor organelle -cyst stage -pellicle -trophozoite stage trophozoite stage
All mature sporozoa are -parasitic -nonmotile -carried by vectors -both a and b parasitic and nonmotile
parasitic helminths reproduce with -spores -eggs and sperm -mitosis -cysts -all of these eggs and sperm
Mitochondria likely orginated from -archaea -invaginations of the cell membrane -bacteria -chloroplasts bacteria
Most helminth infections -are localized to one site in the body -spread through major systems of the body -develop within the spleen -develop within the liver are localized to one site in the body
Binary fission prokaryotic cell division following enlargement of a cell to twice its minimum size
Generation time time required for microbial cells to double in number minutes to double-exponential growth
microbial growth curve lag phase log phase stationary phase death phase
lag phase synthesize enzymes when bacteria is in a media
log phase rapid increase most susceptible to antibiotics metabolism at max actively dividing
stationary phase runs out of nutrients population constant wastes accumulate
death phase death exceeds reproduction no nutrients wastes become toxic some survive endospores
viable cell counts spread plate w/serial dilution pour plate w/serial dilution most probable number count
methods that don't require incubation microscopic (hemacytometer) electronic
indirect methods when weren't not directly counting turbidimetric (spectrophotometry) metabolic activity dry weight genetic methods
phototroph vs chemotroph -phototroph microbes that photosynthesize use light for energy and utilize inorganic components -chemotroph are microbes that gain energy from chemical organic compounds
autotroph vs. heterotrophs -autotrophs use CO2 (inorganic carbon) as their carbon source converts it to food primary producers -heterotrophs require 1 or more organic molecules for their carbon source feed directly on autotrophs
environmental factors affecting growth temp oxygen requirements ph osmotic pressure
temperature affecting growth psychrophiles- adap[t to grow at very low temps mesophiles-optimum growth at 20 to 40 degrees C thermophiles-flourish at high temps
oxygen requirements affecting growth obligate aerobe-essential has enzymes to detoxify facultative anaerobe-capable of growth in absence of O2 but prefers obligate anaerobe-O2 is deadly, can't detoxify aerotolerant anaerobes-can survive and grow to a limited extent in presence of O2
pH requirements affecting growth acidophiles-grow best at low ph <6 neutrophile-grow best between pH 6 to pH 8 alkalinophile-grow best at high pH >8
Osmotic pressure affecting growth restricts organisms to certain environments requires high levels of salt- halophiles best of solute conc 3 to 12 % halotolerant can tolerate solutes 1to 7 % nonhalophiles need very low conc
symbiotic organisms live in close nutritional relationships, required by 1 or more members -mutualism/both benefit -commensalism/other member not harmed -parasitism/dependent and benefits, host harmed
nonsymbiotic organisms are free living, relationships not required for survival -synergism/members cooperate and share nutrients -antagonism/some members are inhibited or destroyed by others
Biofilms mixed communities of different kinds of bacteria and other microbes
Quorum sensing cells are stimulated to release chemicals as the population grows to monitor its size
AHL (autoinducer homoserine lactone) gram - positive feedback 180 genes during reg metabolism 600 genes in high cell density
AIP (Autoinducing peptide) gram + some AIPs differ by amino acid
AI-2 (autoinducer 2) cross species talk
The source of the necessary elements of life is -an organic environmental reservoir -the sun -rocks -the air an inorganic environmental reservoir
An organism that can synthesize all its required organic components from CO2 using energy from the sun is -photoautotroph -photoheterotroph -chemoautotroph -chemoheterotroph photoautotroph
Chemoautotrophs can survive on ______ alone. minerals and CO2
Which of the following statements is true for ALL organisms -require organic nutrients -require inorganic nutrients -require growth factors -require oxygen gas require inorganic nutrients
A pathogen would most accurately be described as a -parasite -commensal -saprobe -symbiont parasite
Which of the following is true of passive transport -it requires a gradient -it uses the cell wall -it includes endocytosis -it only moves water it requires a gradient
A cell exposed to a hypertonic environment will _____ by osmosis. lose water
Psychrophiles would be expected to grow -in hot springs -on the human body -at refrigeration temps -at low pH at refrigeration temps
Superoxide ion is toxic to strict anaerobes because they lack -catalase -peroxidase -dismutase -oxidase dismutase
In a viable plate count, each ______ represents a _________ from the same population. colony, cell
constitutive enzyme always present in relatively constant amounts
regulated enzymes production is turned on (induced) or turned off (repressed) in response to changes in concentration of substrate
repression stops further synthesis of an enzyme somewhere along its pathway response time is longer than for feedback inhibition
induction control enzymes appear induced only when suitable substrates are present inverse of enzyme repression
aerobic respiration series of reactions that converts glucose to CO2 and allows the cell to recover significant amounts of energy glycolysis, krebs cycle, and electron transport chain
anaerobic respiration utilizes glycolysis, krebs cycle, and electron transport chain but final electron acceptor is NO3, SO4, or CO3 NOT O2 less efficient than aerobic
glycolysis the universal pathway glucose is phosphorylated, split in 2, and converted to pyruvic acid 2 ATPs
pyruvic acid central metabolite for many biological processes
Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle doesn't require O2 depends on by products of respiration to continue -all reactions occur twice for each glucose molecule because 2 pyruvates are formed during glycolysis -2 ATPs acetyl coA
Electron Transport Chain series of oxidations and reductions receives electrons from NADH and FADH2 electrons are passed from one protein to the next electron at the end is spent and given final acceptor as OXYGEN -34 ATPs
Total yield from glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport 38 ATPs
fermentation utilized by every organism, to some extent , perferred method of making ATP by some by itself it makes no ATP oxygen is not required yields 2 ATP from glycolysis
alcoholic fermentation occurs mainly in yeast converts pyruvic acid to ethanol
lipid catabolism lipases- breaks apart fatty acids joined to glycerol glycerol is then converted to dihydroxyacetone phosphate which can enter glycolysis
protein catabolism proteases- break down proteins to their amino acid components amino group removed through deamination remaining carbon converted to the krebs cycle decarboxylation is also possible
amphibolism some metabolic pathways can be used in forward and reverse direction increased efficiency given molecule can serve multiple purposes to derive max benefit both catabolism and anabolism
photosynthesis light dependent reactions- proceed only in the presence of sunlight light-independent-proceed regardless of lighting conditions
anabolism the synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy
carbohydrate catabolism amylase- break down starch into glucose
Catabolism is a form of metabolism in which ________ molecules are converted into _______ molecules Large, small
enzyme is heat and pH labile
An apoenzyme is where the _____ is located. -cofactor -coenzyme -redox reaction -active site active site
To digest cellulose in its environment, a fungus produces a/an -endoenzyme -exoenzyme -catalase -polymerase exoenzyme
Energy is carried from catabolic to anabolic reactions in the form of -ADP -high energy ATP bonds -coenzymes -inorganic phosphate high energy ATP bonds
Many coenzymes -metals -vitamins -proteins -substrates vitamins
A product or products of glycolysis is/are -ATP -H2O -CO2 -both a and b ATP
Fermentation of a glucose molecule has the potential to produce a net number of ________ ATPs. 2
Complete oxidation of glucose in aerobic respiration can yield a net output of _______ ATPs. 38
ATP synthase complexes can generate ________ ATPs for each NADH that enters electron transport 3
Created by: vtlove116



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