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Lecture 1: Comp Phys

Comparative Physiology USD Fall 2018 Dr. Renner

QuestionAnswer
How can physiology be defined? The Dynamic relation between cells, tissues, organs and theorganism as a whole
What is physiology? The way things work; the mechanisms of ow cells, tissues, organs, and the organism as a whole work together to survive
What is comparative? View of how different organisms have evolved mechanisms that enable them to survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions
Define Struture Function relationships
Function has a dependence on ____________. structure
What is an adaptation? Match or fit of physiology of an animal with the environment
Adaptation is a ______ process done through _______. slow, natural selection
Adaptations often lead to ________. development of a species
Are adaptations refersible or irreversible? generally irreversible which is why it often leads to the development of a species
Define Acclimatization? Changes in an organism/individual in response to changes occuring naturally in the environment
Give an example of acclimatization? Walking outside without a coat on so you shiver or for birds their metabolism and enzyme levels change for survival in winter
Define acclimation? changes in an individual in response to experimentally induced changes in its environment
Give an example of acclimation? Putting birds in a chamber. You put summer birds in a cold chamber and record the changes
Define homeostasis? Maintenance of a state of internal constancy
What does homeostasis literally mean? "steady state"
What did Claude Bernard do in 1872? He recognized many animals maintained a relatively constant internal environment under a variety of external conditions (homeostasis without actually defining the term)
What did Walter Cannon do in 1929? Coined the term homeostasis
What maintains homeostasis? Control system with three different components: receptor, control center, and the effector
What is a receptor? some form of a sensor to take in the stimulus
What is a control center? something to process the input; read sthe input and chooses the response
What is an effector? Something to do something about the input i.e. cuase the appropriate change
Explain the thermostat analogy of a negative feedback system? 1. The set point on the thermostat is the setting 2. The thermostat is the control center 3. The thermometer is the sensor/receptor 4. The furnace is the effector -Decrease in room temperature is recepted, a response is initiated oppositely
With negative feedback, there is _______ between stimulus and response. Lag time
Negative feedback keeps variables in a fairly _____ range. tight
What is negative feedback? A system that is based on the presence of a response that causes a change in the opposite direction of the initial stimulus. i.e.: the stimulus is reversed, decrease in temp causes the furnace to put out heat to increase the temp
What is positive feedback? Incorporates the elements of negative feedbac, but instead of reversing the stimulus, the stimulus is amplified
Give an example of a positive feedback system? LH (Leutenizing Hormone): surge during ovulation or oxytocin increase during birthing
In relation to pathophysiology, why are positive feedback systems important? Positive feedback is a detrimental response when normal negative feedback systems are impaired
What are the two responses to changes in the external environment that organisms can have? Conformers or regulators
What are an organisms environmental responses dependent on? Nature of the organism (type) and the severity of the envronmental change
What do conformers do? Exhibit alterations in their internal environments that reflect the changes occuring in the external environment
What does the graph of conformers look like? Steady positive slope
In lay-man's terms what do conformers do? They match their internal environment to the external environment
What is a disadvantage of being a conformer? The organism's function is dependent on the external conditions
What is an advantae of being a conformer? The organism's system requires very little energy because it doesn't have to regulate as closely. Also allows the organism to adapt to a wide range of a given variable (consider salinity)
What do regulators do? Regulate internal conditions or maintain homeostasis through a wide variety of external conditions
What does the graph of regulators look like? A stretched out capital N
What does the staight line at the beginning of the regulator's graph and the end represent? Theses are extreme exernal condtions (extreme heat/cold) where the homeostatic mechanisms fail
What happens when failed homeostatic mechanisms continue uncorrected? Death of the organism
What is a disadvantage of being a regulator? Regulation is energetically expensive and has a high metabolic cost
What is an advantage of being a regulator? The organism can function independently of the (most) external conditions and exploit a wider range of habitats
Created by: kenzigustafson