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A&P vocabulary

TermDefinition
DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid The nucleic acid found in all living cells carries the organism's hereditary information
RNA - Ribonucleic Acid The nucleic acid that contains ribose; acts in the protein synthesis
Nucleic Acids Class of organic molecules that includes RNA and DNA
Nucleotides Building blocks of nucleic acids
Enzymes Substances formed by living cells that act as a catalysts in bodily chemical reactions
Catalyst A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product or being changed itself
Functional Proteins Proteins that play crucial roles in virtually all biological processes = rather than just forming structures
Active Site The specific region of an enzyme where a substrate binds and catalysis takes place or where chemical reaction occurs
Fibrous Proteins A strandlike protein that appears most often in body structures. They are very important in binding structures together and for providing strength in certain body tissues
Structural Proteins Typically long and thin, and hense the name FIBROUS ; water-insoluble
Globular Proteins Spherical (globe-like) proteins ; somewhat water-soluble
Proteins A complex nitrogenous substance; the main building material in cells
Amino Acids Organic compound containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; the building block of protein
Steroids A specific group of chemical substances including certain hormones and cholesterol
Cholesterol A steroid found in animal fats as well as in most body tissues; made by the liver
Omega-3 Fatty Acids a class of essential fatty acids found in fish oils that acts to lower the levels of cholesterol and LDL in the blood
Phospholipids A modified triglyceride containing phosphorus
Polyunsaturated Of or relating to long-chain carbon compounds, especially fatty acids, having two or more double bonds between the carbon atoms.
Trans Fats An unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbons atoms which makes the molecule kinked; also know as trans fatty acid
Glycerol A sugar alcohol , one of the building blocks of fats
Saturated Atoms are linked by single bonds
Neutral Fats Produced by the dehydration synthesis of one or more fatty acids with an alcohol like glycerol
Fatty Acids A building block of fats
Dehydration Synthesis Process by which a larger molecule is synthesized from smaller ones by removal of water molecule at each site of bond formation
Disaccharide A Double sugar; ex: sucrose and lactose
Glucose The principal sugar in the blood; a monosaccharide
Buffers Substances that help to stabilize the pH of a solution
Inorganic Compounds A compound that lacks carbon (ex: water)
Water A chemical compound that consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
Salt Ionic compound that dissociates into charged particles (other than hydrogen or hydroxyl ions) when dissolved in water
Organic Compounds A compound containing carbon (EX: proteins, carbohydrates, and fats)
Hydrolysis The process in which water is used to split a substance into smaller particles
Polysaccharides Literally means sugars; a polymer of linked monosaccharides (EX: starch and glycogen)
Mechanical Energy Energy form directly involved in putting matter into motion
Radiant Energy Energy of the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes heat, light, ultraviolet waves, infrared waves and other forms
Chemical Energy Energy form stored in chemical bonds
Electrical Energy Energy form resulting from the movement of charged particles
Radioactivity The process of spontaneous decay seen in some of the heavier isotopes, during which particles or energy is emitted from the atomic nucleus; results in the atom becoming more stable
Molecules A particle consisting of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
Kinetic Energy Energy of motion
Potential Energy Energy which an object has because of its position; stored energy
Lipids Organic compound formed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; ex: fats and cholesterol
Triglycerides Compounds composed of fatty acids and glycerol; fats and oils also called neutral fats
Proton Acceptors A base; a base is a negatively charged ion that will react with or accept a positively charged hydrogen ion. Since a hydrogen ion is a proton, the base is called ____________
Neutralization Reaction A chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base;
Electrolytes A substance that breaks down into ions when in solution and is capable of conduction an electric current
Acids A substance that liberates hydrogen ions when in an aqueous solution
Proton Donors An acid; acids are substances that can donate ions to bases. Since a hydrogen atom is a proton and one electron, an ion is just a proton
Bases A substance that accepts hydrogen ions; proton acceptor
Ions An atom with a positive or negative electric charge
Covalent Bonds A bond involving the sharing of electrons between atoms
Valence Shell The outermost energy level of an atom that contains electrons; the electrons here determine the bonding behavior of the atom
Ionic Bonds Bond formed by the complete transfer of electron(s) from one atom to another (or others). The resulting charged atoms, or ions, are oppositely charged and attract each other
Hydrogen Bonds A weak bond in which a hydrogen atom forms a bridge between two electron-hungry atoms. An important intramolecular bond.
Synthesis Reactions Chemical reaction in which larger molecules are formed from simpler ones.
Elements Any of the building blocks of matter; EX: oxygen, hydrogen, carbon
Periodic Table A table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number so that elements with similar atomic structure appear in vertical columns
Isotopes Different atomic form of the same element. Vary only in the number of neutrons they contain.
Radioisotopes Isotope that exhibits radioactive behavior
Orbital Model Depicts the general location of the electrons outside the nucleus as a haze of negative charge referred to as the electron cloud.
Atomic Number The number of protons in an atom
Electrons Negatively charged subatomic particle; orbits the atomic nucleus
Planetary Model Miniature solar system where the protons and neutrons are clustered at the center of the atom in the atomic nucleus
Protons Subatomic particle that bears a positive charge, located in the atomic nucleus
Neutrons Uncharged subatomic particle found in the atomic nucleus
Atoms The smallest part of an element; indivisible by ordinary chemical means
Atomic Symbol A one- or two-letter symbol indicating a particular element
Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass
Energy The ability to do work
Atomic Mass The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Atomic Weight The average of the mass numbers of all of the isotopes of an element
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) The compound that is the important intracellular energy source; cellular energy
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) an organic compound that is composed of adenosine and two phosphate groups; converts to ATP for the storage of energy during cell metabolism
Compound Substance composed of two or more different elements, that atoms of which are chemically united
Electron Shells or Energy Levels An orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus
Unsaturated A molecule that contains double or triple carbon-carbon bonds;
Monounsaturated Of or relating to an organic compound, especially an oil or fatty acid, containing only one double or triple bond per molecule
Carbohydrates Organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes starches, sugars, cellulose
Monosaccharide Literally one sugar; the building block of carbohydrates; EX: glucose and fructose
Decomposition Reactions A destructive chemical reaction in which complex substances are broken down into simpler ones
Exchange Reactions A chemical reaction in which bonds are both made and broken; atoms become combined with different atoms
Unsaturated Contains double or triple carbon-carbon bonds
pH The symbol for hydrogen ion concentration; a measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution
Unsaturated Solution A more dilute solution
Saturated Solution A more concentrated solution
Created by: SarahDishman