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CIT173 Ch1

CIT173 Ch1 Intro to Win 10

QuestionAnswer
Active Directory (AD) A domain security database of user and computer information that is stored on domain controllers and referenced by domain member computers. The older Windows NT domain controllers cannot hold Active Directory security databases.
Azure AD join Connects Windows 10 computers with a domain hosted in Windows Azure AD instead of an on-premises domain.
central processing unit (CPU) A device responsible for the actual execution of instructions stored in applications and operating system code. Windows 10 supports 32 and 64 bit CPUs.
Continuum The Windows 10 feature that automatically adjusts Windows 10 between desktop mode and tablet mode as the device state changes.
Continuum for phone The feature for Windows 10 phones that allows external peripherals such as mouse, keyboard, monitor, or projectors to be used.
Cortana A personalized virtual search assistant. Cortana can use voice recognition to accept commands from the user.
desktop mode The traditional configuration for a Windows 10 computer that is optimized for use with a mouse and keyboard.
device driver Software written by the developer of a hardware component that tells the operating system how to talk to and control the hardware.
domain controller (DC) A server responsible for holding a domain security database which contains a list of user and computer account security data.
Domain Name System (DNS) A standard service in the TCP/IP protocol used to define how computer names are translated into IP addresses.
Dynamic Link Library (DLL) A file that holds application code modules. These modules are shared among applications, so the file is also called a library. DLL files can be replaced to update an application without having to replace the entire application.
Easy Upgrade A simple upgrade process that can be used to upgrade Windows 10 Home to Windows 10 Professional. An Easy Upgrade is purchased through the Windows Store.
Encrypted File System (EFS) A component of the NTFS file system that is responsible for encrypting individual files. Those files are not readable without the correct digital identification.
hyperthreading A technique used in certain Intel processors to improve their overall performance by working on more than one thread at a time.
Long Term Service Branch (LTSB) An update process to Windows 10 that allows devices to run a feature stable version of Windows 10 where the operating system is not expected to change configuration frequently.
Microsoft Edge The new web browser in Windows 10 that replaces Internet Explorer. It is completely redesigned to avoid the legacy support issues encountered with Internet Explorer.
Microsoft Passport An MFA (multifactor authentication) system in Windows 10 that enhances security by avoiding the use of a username and password. Biometric authentication on the client allows access to the remote system.
Mobile Device Management (MDM) An administrative system that allows corporate administrators to deploy, secure, monitor and integrate mobile devices such as laptops, tablets, and smartphones into the corporate ecosystem.
Multifactor Authentication (MFA) A security system that requires more than 1 method of proving someone/something is who or what it is declared to be. Different methods are used to verify the user’s identity for a transaction or sign-in attempt, such as a password plus a fingerprint.
multimaster replication When a domain has multiple domain controllers, all domain controllers are capable of making changes to the security domain database they share. The changes are replicated from one domain controller to another.
multiprocessor A term used to refer to a computer with more than one CPU.
multitasking A term used to describe the appearance of more than one application sharing the CPU of the computer. To the user, the applications all seem to be running at the same time.
multitouch A method of input on a touchscreen or a touchpad that allows two or more points of contact on a high-precision touch device. This enables precision gestures to interact with the Windows 10 environment.
NT File System (NTFS) A standard for organizing files and folders on a hard disk partition. This standard is more complex than FAT but adds more management features. This is the preferred standard for storing files on a hard disk.
PIN A personal identification number that allows users to identify themselves during the authentication or sign-in process.
Plug and Play technology A general term used to describe hardware that can be plugged in to the computer system and removed at any time. The computer will recognize the hardware dynamically, load a device driver for it, and make it available to the user in a short period of time.
preemptive multitasking A method for applications to share a CPU and appear that they are all running at the same time. This method adds time limits and priority levels to determine how long an application can use the processor and which application gets to go next.
process A term used to describe the files, memory, and application code that combine together to form a single running application. Each application running on a multitasking system is referenced by a single process.
processor affinity A standard in which a process that starts in a computer with more than one CPU is usually assigned to that CPU again the next time it runs.
quantum The amount of time allocated to a program running in a preemptive multitasking environment. Once a program’s quantum has expired, it must wait for the next available quantum.
Software Assurance (SA) An option when purchasing Microsoft software that allows you to automatically receive the latest version of a product. For example, if you purchased Windows 8 with Software Assurance you would automatically be able to upgrade to Windows 10.
System on a Chip (SoC) A hardware platform that combines multiple devices that would normally be found as discrete components inside a computer, but instead are combined into a single silicon chip.
tablet mode The configuration for Windows 10 that is optimized for use with a touch screen.
Task View An option available on the taskbar that allows you to switch between applications and virtual desktops.
thread A piece of code that performs a specific single task. An application is written as one or more threads, each of which performs a specific task within the application. The thread is typically seen as a unit of work for the CPU to perform.
Trusted Platform Module (TPM) A third-party standard to define a method of trusting the computer environment before an operating system is started. This helps to prevent the theft of a hard disk and placement of the disk in a foreign system to steal data.
universal apps A developer platform strategy to enable the development of applications that can run on every Windows device phones, tablets, laptops, desktops, and Xbox gaming centers.
Universal Windows Platform (UWP) A common application platform available on every device that runs Windows 10. The UWP provides a guaranteed core programming interface across devices.
Virtual Desktop A new feature in Windows 10 that allows users to create multiple desktops with different applications and switch between them on a single monitor.
Windows as a Service (WaaS) An update process for Windows 10 in which new features are continuously published and installed to existing Windows 10 installations.
Windows Hello Biometric authentication functionality in Windows 10. At release Windows Hello supports fingerprints, facial recognition, and iris scanning.
Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking A networking technology included in Windows Vista and later operating systems that allow clients to use IPv6 to communicate with each other over LANs or the Internet.
Created by: Leisac