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Exam 1

Physiology

QuestionAnswer
Glucose in your blood is an example of a(n) _________ in the human body. chemical
Neurons are an example of a(n) ________ in the human body. cell
Blood is considered to be ___________ tissue. Connective
Which of the following tissue types are found in the bladder? connective epithelial muscle nervous all of the above tissues are found in the bladder
Communication is the main function of the __________ system. endocrine
Plasma is extracellular fluid found within the circulatory system.
Which of the following is an example of negative feedback? a) If body temperature increases above normal, thermoreceptors in the hypothalamus send signals to the brain. Certain areas of the brain then send signals to the nerves that control the sweat glands and blood vessels near the surface of the skin to make t
Which of the following statements about nuclei is correct? The nucleus contains our genetic code or DNA.
The ___________ contains ribosomes that synthesis proteins that will be secreted from the cell. rough endoplasmic reticulum
______ codes for amino acids and is read by ribosomes, while ______ brings amino acids to the ribosomes. mRNA : tRNA
Adipocytes or fat cells have a lot of ________ to synthesize the triglycerides that get stored there. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
The beta cells in your pancreas make insulin, which is a peptide hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. Insulin is made in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and wrapped in a membrane by the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. It is then sent to the ________ golgi complex
A bacterial cell phagocytized by a macrophage would fuse with a ________ inside the macrophage to be digested by hydrolytic enzymes. lysosome
Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is a byproduct of aerobic respiration. Knowing this, you would expect cells that do a lot of aerobic respiration to have a lot of _________ to convert the hydrogen peroxide back to water and oxygen. peroxisomes
The _________ is where the majority of ATP is produced in a cell. mitochondria
Which of the following cytoskeletal elements do not rearrange themselves and are therefore considered to be permanent? intermediate filaments
Flagella and cilia are made up of ______, which can rearrange and therefore cause movement. microtubules
Cardiomyocytes in the heart contain all there major types of cell junctions. _______ that act like spot rivets to keep the cells from being pulled apart when the heart fills with blood. __________ that allow ions like sodium and calcium to flow directly f Desmosomes : Gap junction : Tight junctions
______ groups are the functional groups found on proteins that contain nitrogen. Amino
The synthesis of lactose in the mammary glands from glucose and galactose is an example of a __________ reaction where _______ is used and _______ is released. dehydration synthesis : energy : water
Which of the following polysaccharides is not digested in our small intestine, because we do not produce enzymes capable of breaking the covalent bonds between the glucose molecules? cellulose
Our bodies use _______ for energy storage because they are energy dense and do not require water to store. Triglycerides
________ like testosterone and estrogen are lipids made up of carbon rings and act as signaling molecules. Steroids
The 20 different amino acids used to make proteins have different ________ . side chains
Which of the following is a type of protein? Sucrase, the enzyme that breaks down sucrose. The antibodies produced by our B cells in response to infection. Ferritin that binds and stores iron in the liver. Aquaporins that serve as channels for water to move through the plasma membrane.
When a protein denatures: B) weak non-covalent interactions like hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces are disrupted. C) the protein unfolds losing its quaternary and tertiary structure both (b) and (c)
Enzymes: A) decrease the amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur. B) tend to have only a few or a single substrate. C) catalyze a chemical reaction without being consumed in the process. D) bind to the substrate forming an enzyme substrate comp
Which of the following nucleic acid is double stranded? DNA
Glycolysis is a series of enzymatic reactions that breaks one six carbon ________ into two three carbon _________. glucose : pyruvates
When your skeletal muscles undergo intense contractions, like when bench pressing 200 pounds, enough oxygen is not available for the electron transport chain to continue so glycolysis is the only way your muscles have to make ATP. In order for glycolysis pyruvate : lactic acid
The Krebs cycle: occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. requires oxygen. yields 2 ATP per glucose molecule. yields 6 NADHs per glucose molecule. all of the above are true of the Krebs cycle.
The role of NAD and FAD in aerobic respiration is: The role of NAD and FAD in aerobic respiration is:
The electron transport chain: A) occurs on the inner mitochondrial membrane. B) is a series of proton pumps that use the energy from electrons to pump hydrogen ions from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space. C) utilizes ATP synthase to make the vast majority of ATP fo
Your cell can make ATP from which of the following molecules glucose fructose amino acids fatty acids all of the above
The lipid bilayer that forms the foundation of our plasma membranes is made by amphipathic_________. phospholipids
The plasma membrane is selectively permeable. Which of the following substances will freely cross the plasma membrane via passive diffusion? oxygen oxygen
___________ increases the fluidity and stability of the plasma membrane. Cholesterol
Which of the following is NOT a type of protein found in or associated with the plasma membrane? Phospholipids
A(n) ______ has a negative charge because it has _____ an electron. anion : accepted
Potassium: can move down its electrochemical gradient through leak channels when cells are at rest.
The resting membrane potential of most of our cells is _____ because: -70mV : there are more anions in intracellular fluid than in extracellular fluid.
Which of the following would increase the diffusion rate of oxygen into your lungs? breathing through an oxygen mask that is delivering oxygen enriched air.
When you are dehydrated, the osmolarity of your plasma ________ and water _______ your red blood cells, causing them to _________. increases : leaves : shrink
If sodium channels open on the plasma membrane, sodium will: B) diffuse into the cell. C) move down its electrochemical gradient. both (b) and (c).
For glucose to enter hepatocytes (liver cells), glucose needs to be in higher concentration in extracellular fluid than intracellular fluid. Therefore glucose is moving by _________ to enter hepatocytes. facilitated diffusion
The sodium potassium pump: is a primary active transporter that uses one molecule of ATP to pump three sodium out of cells and two potassium into cells.
The calcium ATPase present on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of our skeletal muscle fibers directly uses ATP to pump calcium out of the cytoplasm into the sarcoplasmic reticulum against calcium's electrochemical gradient. Therefore calcium is moving by ______ secondary active transport
Insulin is a peptide hormone that is packaged into secretory vesicles by beta cells in the pancreas. When blood glucose levels increase, beta cells in the pancreas release insulin by __________ in order to cause insulin sensitive cells to absorb glucose f exocytosis
Your favorite ion so far is: calcium, because you love drinking milk. chloride, because you love swimming in pools. potassium, because you love eating bananas. sodium, because the salt shaker is your best friend at dinner. bicarbonate, because you love to titrate.
Created by: Mbryson27