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C. Diff

QuestionAnswer
What are the agents incorporated in agar to recover C. diff for a stool culture? Cycloserie, cefoxitin, fructose, egg yolk agar. Will appear as mustard-yellow colonies.
What is the single most important risk factor regarding C. diff? Antibiotic exposure because it alters the gut flora and allows this opportunistic pathogen to grow. Clindamycin has been identified as the main culprit.
What is the principle of the TOX A/B Test and what should a positive result look like? The TOX A/B Test is an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of toxins A and B. A color change occurs due to the enzyme-antibody-antigen complexes that form in the presence of the toxins. A purple line indicates a positive result.
Patients treated with antibiotics are often at risk for what? Clostridium difficile associated diarrheal disease (CDAD), psedomembranous colitis (PMC), toxic megacolon, and death.
What are some other tests for detection of C. diff? Cytotoxicity Test/Tissue culture: looks at cell lines and presence of toxins. Latex Agglutination: recognizes the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase. PCR, but is confined to research settings. Endoscopy.
How is C. diff treated? Once it is diagnosed, incited antibiotic must be discontinued if possible. Metronidazole is the first line therapy, and Vancomycin is the second line therapy. Fluid replacement is encouraged.