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Research Final

Summer 2018

QuestionAnswer
what kind of question would most likely be on an achievement test? who was the 3rd president of the USA
in terms of scoring procedures, two types of achievement tests in common use are... standardized and researcher made
Suppose that a teacher has 100 students in his class, and bases grades solely on test scores. Further suppose that this teacher assigns 15 A's, 25 B's, 40 C's, 10 D's, and 10 F's. This teacher has assigned grades based on tests that are norm referenced
types of statement on an attitude test colleges should not use SAT scores in making admission decisions
recording everything about behavior during observation continuous recording
major disadvantage of collecting information using a mailed questionnaire is the return rate of completed questionnaires may be low
True/ False the method you use to look at the variables you are studying should be used to determine how you ask your research questions FALSE
T/F the most important use of a test is to help evaluate whether a variable in an experiment had the predicted effect TRUE
T/F standardized tests purchased from commercial publishers usually include clear instructions for scoring the test TRUE
T/F multiple choice questions that are answered correctly by about 50% of the test takers are considered the best TRUE
T/F When using a likert scaling method, test items that indicate opposing attitudes are usually scored differently TRUE
What is an achievement test used when you want to understand how much information someone has about a certain are a of knowledge
what is a questionnaire a time saving technique completed without direct assistance of the researcher, allows for easy sharing with others, anonymity may result in greater truthfulness by participants, cheaper to complete than one on one survey, uses regular mail/email
Attitudinal Scales how people feel toward a particular issue
Achievement Test how much people know about a certain topic
Features of a standardized test produced by commercial publisher, broad application across settings, come with a standard set of instructions, come with scoring procedures
features of researcher generated test designed for a smaller purpose (baselines), limit to a smaller number of peopls
True equal interval scale Thurstone-like scale
Likert scales statements of feeling, clear positive an negative values, respondent determines degree go agreement
Duration recording the researcher uses a device to keep track of time and measures the length of time the behavior occurs
frequency recording the researcher charts the incidence or frequency of the occurrence of a specific behavior
interval recording or time sample a particular subject is observed during a particular time period
continuous recording all behaviors are recorded without reference to observations of specific behaviors
considerations to ensure the recording of behavior is valid and reliable the act of observing may interfere with the bahavior bias or viewpoint can affect, observer can become fatigued or bored and miss behavior, be consistent in behavior you're observing, make sure observation is done with anonymity and respect participant
creating a successful questionnaire; basic assumptions the question is based on the demands on time, expense, and effort are reasonable avoid asking inappropriate and unclear questions focus on only questions which will achieve the goal of the research make sure respondent has knowledge to answer design interesting
creating a successful questionnaire; the questions themselves creating questions that can be answered asking the question in a clear and concise manner social desirability of a question should be considered
creating a successful questionnaire; the format the questions are presented easy to read (clearly printed and organized), number questions and pages, clear and complete instructions, indicate importance in cover letter,
researchers typically use either or both of two types of statistics called.... descriptive and inferential
three common measures of central tendency mean median mode
If the same number of people take two tests (A & B) and the distribution of scores on test A is less variable than the distribution of scores on test B, then one can conclude that: more people scored near the mean on test A than test B
standard scores allow accurate comparisons to be made between scores from two different distributions because... they have the same reference point and same standard deviation
T/F inferential statistics can be used to determine whether your data do or do not support your original hypothesis TRUE
Data collection steps construction of the data, development of the coding strategy to represent the data on the data collection form, collection of the data ,entry of data on the data collection form
construction of the data collection form aim is to organize the raw data a location is provided for all the possible values on the form the data collection form needs to be clear easy to use and contain locations for all possible measures of the study
development of the coding strategy to represent the data on the data collection form coding involves changing data into numerical form (gender to 1&2) ID number is given to each subject for confidentiality results in reduced clutter by using minimal digits without losing the meaning
How to ensure Data is Reliable and Valid what data do you need to answer the question clear and easy to use data form make copies of data and keep separate do not rely in others to work with your data without personal training develop sources for participant pool
Descriptive Statistics simple measures of a distribution's central tendency and variability, can describe some of the characteristics of the distribution of scores you have collected
inferential statistics allow inferences to be made to the population, helps make decisions about how the data relates to original hypothesis and how they might be generalizable to larger number, can be used to determine if data supports original hypothesis
3 measures of central tendency Mean Median Mode
measures of variability variance standard deviation range
What level of measurement is Mode nominal
what level of measurement is median ordinal
what level of measurement is mean interval and ratio
what is a standard score scores that have the same reference point and standard deviation standard score is calculated to allow for comparison of distributions having different means and standard deviations
Standard Deviations can never be less than zero, useful measure of variability if data are collected at the interval and ratio scales, but not if at either nominal or ordinal scales
what is a z-score represents a particular location along the x axis, used to compare scores from distributions that are different from one another
why are z scores essential compare raw scores from different distributions, & associated with a particular likelihood that a raw score will appear in a distribution
even when there are differenced between two groups, the researcher cannot be sure that the difference Is
Created by: clp26570