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Phonology

Development

QuestionAnswer
What is articulation? Motor production skills involved in the production of speech sounds. Characteristics: - Phonetic errors - Difficulty w/motor production - Organic or "functional - Not stimulable?
What is phonology? Rules that govern sound production Characteristics: - Phonemic errors - Errors related to INCORRECT application of rules - Patterned errors - Can produce sound, but does not do so in appropriate contexts
What is involved in articulation assessment? Examine sounds that a child has difficulty producing
What is involved in phonological assessment? 1. Examine production skills 2. Examines how sounds are sequenced and used contrastivly to signal difference in meaning
Phonetic means? Sound
Phonemic means? Meaning
What is the problem with the terminology of articulation and phonology? Phonological processes are as likely to be caused by phonetic problems as phonemic problems (e.g., velar fronting may initially occur because child cannot produce /k/ and /g/
Can children demonstrate a progression from a phonological to an articulation disorder? Yes
Does doing articulation therapy for a phonological process do any good? No
What are phonotactics? Restrictions of a language that specify the shapes and sizes of syllables and words
What are phones? Sounds
What are phonemes? Sounds that carry meaning
What are allophones? Speakers can impose a sound that doesn't change the meaning
What are features? Characteristics that distinguish between sounds
What are syllables? Sounds that convey meaning, words
What does a syllable consist of? Onset + Rhyme Ball - B is onset, ALL is vowel (rhyme)
What happens at 4 years old in normal vocal development? 1. Larynx descends 2. Epiglottis and velum separate 3. Tongue is more mobile 4. Teeth appear 5. There are changes in vocal behavior
What are the (overlapping) stages of development? 1. Phonation (birth-1 m): Reflexive vocalizations 2. Coo and Goo (2-3 m): Back vowels and consonants 3. Vocal play (4-6 m): Squeals, growls, raspberries
What are the (overlapping) stages of development (continued...)? 4. Canonical Babble (6-8 m): Alternating supra-glottal consonants/vowels, limited speech sound repertoire, stops/nasals/glides, lax vowels. Alveolars and labials, adult-like timing
What are the (overlapping) stages of development (continued continued....) 5. Jargon (12 m): Co-occurs with babbling and early words, string of sounds/syllables produced in a variety of stress and inonational patterns
Created by: aly435