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AST Cert Exam #7

AST Cert Exam #7 - bonus science

QuestionAnswer
What is the name of the condition when the foreskin of the penis cannot be retracted to normal position? phimosis
What shape are bacilli? rod-shaped
What type of stapling device is used to perform low anterior anastomosis? EEA
Which division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for "fight or flight" response? sympathetic - physiologic response to danger
Surgical puncture of the joint space with a needle for synovial fluid drainage is called? arthrocentesis
Excessive secretion of growth hormones in adults causes: acromagaly
Oopherectomy is the surgical removal of the: ovary
What term refers to voluntary skeletal muscle? striated
The suffix "-pexy" means: fixation, to put in place
Which part of the neuron conducts impulses away from the cell body? axon
The prefix "pseudo-" means: false
Disruption of previously sutured tissue layers is: dehiscence
An inanimate object upon which pathogens may be conveyed is referred to as a: fomite
The hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics is: estrogen
Which muscle is not a component of the rotator cuff of the shoulder? trapezius
A foreign substance that stimulates the production of antibodies is an: antigen
The suffix "-lysis" means: breakdown, destruction
Diatrizoate megulmine (Hypaque or Renografin) or Iothalamute meglumine (Conray) are examples of: contrast media
The small intestine is divided into how many sections? 3
Epidural anesthesia involves the administration of an anesthetic agent into the space surrounding the: dura mater
What is an action of antimicrobials? inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis
The anatomical landmark located at the proximal, lateral portion of the femoral shaft is the: greater trochanter
The primary stabilizing ligament of the knee which is attached to the posterior lateral: anterior cruciate
What type of bone are carpal bones? short
The electrical component of the heart that causes contraction of the ventricles are the: Purkinje fibers
The prefix "para-" means: near, beside
The prefix "peri-" means: surrounding
A direct or indirect inguinal hernia indicates a tear in: transversalis fascia
The bending of the foot downward at the ankle joint is called: plantar flexion
Which vertebrae have ribs attached? thoracic
Which organ produces bile? liver
What describes spherically shaped bacteria? cocci
Lack of control over urination is called: incontinence
What agent is used to perform an intraoperative cholangiogram? Hypaque
What does the thymus gland produce for the immune response? T-cells
Which cranial nerve arises from the medulla and innervates the cervical, thoracic and abdominal regions? X - Vagus
The total number of vertebrae in the adult is: 26
The medical term for the chest is: thorax
Cholecystectomy is removal of the: gallbladder
What are the cells of the bone? osteocytes
What is the medical term for the calf muscle? gastrocnemius
The suffix "-malacia" refers to: softening
For which tissue type would a cutting needle be contraindicated? intestine
Which would affect normal wound healing? peripheral vascular disease
The nuclear material of the bacterial cell has been found to: exist as a single molecule of DNA
Escherichia coli is normally present inside which anatomical structure? colon
Which nerves innervates the breast? anterior thorax
In which fossa is the cerebellum located? posterior
Omnipaque, a water soluble iodine-based contrast medium is used for: angiography
Tetanus and botulism are caused by organisms of the genus: clostridium
Which is a phase of first intention wound healing? maturation
Which sutures is a polyester fiber suture? Ethibond
Growth in long bones occurs at the: epiphyseal plate
Air in the pleural cavity is: pneumothorax
The initial result of fertilization of gametes is a: zygote
The thorax is formed posteriorly by the: twelve thoracic vertebrae
The seventh cranial nerve is called the: facial
What does the term cephalalgia mean? headache
The prefix "brady-" means: slow
Which is a parenteral route of drug administration? intravenous
Misalignment or deviation of the eye is: strabismus
Following administration, most of the drugs are converted to less active or inactive substances called: metabolites
Hemorrhaging that occurs between the skull and outer meningeal covering is an: epidural hematoma
If a suture strand hangs or extends over the sterile table edge, the CST in the scrub role should: consider the suture contaminated and discard it
The term "pharmacodynamics" means: interactions between drugs and target cells
A relationship between two kinds of organisms that live together for mutual benefit is called: mutualism
Hemostasis means to: arrest blood flow
What type of tissue is cartilage? connective
Heparin is classified as an: anticoagulant
Enlargement of the veins of the spermatic cord is a: varicocele
RBC are also known as: erythrocytes
The standard volume for an Asepto syringe is approximately: 120 cc
In which processes does destruction of spores occur? sterilization
Which systemic condition affects the ophthalmic system? diabetes
The pectoral girdle is formed by the: scapula and clavicle
Tubercle bacillus is found in the: respiratory tract
Which bones does not articulate with another bone? hyoid
The adrenal cortex secretes: hormones
Rickettsial diseases of humans are transmitted by: tick bite
Antibiotics are commonly administered intraoperatively by what route? intravenous
The scroll-like ridges on the lateral walls of the nasal cavity are called the: nasal conchae
What drug is added to a local anesthetic to decrease bleeding? epinephrine
Inherited deficiencies of coagulation in which bleeding occurs spontaneously after minor trauma is called: hemophilia
When an anesthetized patient's position is changed from Trandelenberg to dorsal recumbent, he/she should be moved slowly to prevent: circulatory depression
The cranial nerve that innervates the larynx and pharynx is the: glossopharyngeal
Cefazolin (Ancef) is an: antibiotic
All are inhalation agents except: atropine
Bolsters are used with retention sutures to: prevent skin lacerations
Pulse oximetry involves the noninvasive measurement of what arterial blood saturation levels? oxygen
Which bone of the skull is most superior? parietal
A dissociative drug that produces a short-term, trance-like state and hallucinations is: Ketamine (Ketalar)
Which is a commonly used type of anesthesia for obstetric and perineal procedures? epidural
The basic unit of length in the metric system is the: meter
The process by which leukocytes engulf and destroy bacteria is called: phagocytosis
The motor-sensory cranial nerve that innervates the tongue is the: hypoglossal
Which is a type of degenerative joint disease? osteoarthritis
The accumulation of CSF in the brain of children is known as: hydrocephalus
A thick-walled, highly resistant body formed within a bacterial cell is a: spore
The C-shaped rings of the trachea are composed of: cartilage
An enzyme extracted from bovine blood that is used as a topical hemostatic agent is: thrombin
The 126 bones that compose the upper and lower extremities of the body are called the: appendicular skeleton
The absorption of a drug depends upon all of the following except: time of day when the drug is given
An angulated fracture of the distal radius is a: Colles'
Which cranial nerve is responsible for the sense of smell? I - Olfactory
What is the purpose of the surgical hand scrub? reduce the microbial count
The end of a long bone is the: epiphysis
A combining form meaning "kidney" is: ren/o
The tail-like distal fibers of the spinal cord form the: cauda equina
What is an external mechanical method of hemostasis? pneumatic tourniquet
The dilation of the arterial wall is called: aneurysm
Organisms that are highly resistant to destruction and can survive a harsh environment are: spores
The suffix "-rrhea" means: flow, discharge
Where are the malleus, incus and stapes located? middle ear
A miotic drug is: Pilocarpine
Neurons that conduct impulses to the spinal cord and brain are called: afferent - sensory
A microscopic blood exam that estimates the percentages of each type of WBC within a sample is: differential blood count
Which natural suture is treated with a salt solution to decrease the rate of absorption? chromic gut
When the vertebral column develops an abnormal lateral curve, the condition is: scoliosis
Which statement concerning sterile technique is false: an opened sterile bottle of saline or water may be recapped carefully
Multiplication of a cell into two separate cells is: binary fission
The rounded portion of the uterus superior to the uterine tubes is: fundus
Which medications inhibits blood coagulation? Warfarin
A drug used to reverse the effect of muscle relaxants is: Prostigmin
The major difference between procaryotic cells and eucaryotic cells is: eucaryotic cells have a well-defined nuclear membrane whereas procaryotic cells have no true nucleus
The inner lining of the heart is: endocardium
Which of the following conditions exists if a patient has a WBC count of 12,500? infection
What is the function of hemoglobin? carry oxygen
Which is an electrical recording of heart activity? electrocardiogram
The primary mode of airborne bacteria in the operating room is the: surgical team
Which is a salivary gland? parotid
Which virus is the precursor to AIDS? HIV
Which is not an action of stapling devices? retract
The acromion process is part of which bone? scapula
What term means the rupture of a wound with protrusion of abdominal contents? evisceration
The thick, crescent-shaped pads of cartilage that rest on the upper articular surface of the tibia are the: menisci
Which portion of the sterile gown is considered non-sterile once it has been donned? axillary region
How many millimeters does one meter equal? 1,000
The heel bone of the foot is called the: calcaneus
The shaft of a bone is known as the: diaphysis
A virus that infects a bacterial cell is called a: bacteriophage
Another name for spongy bone is: cancellous
Which suture size would be used for ophthalmic procedures? 8-0
The true ribs articulate anteriorly with the: sternum
The suffix "-trophy" means: development, nourishment
Which intention of healing occurs in a wound with a large loss of tissue? second - granulation
Which class of surgical wound has the highest rate of infection? IV - dirty/infected
Atrophy means: wasting away
Which type of anaerobic bacteria is the cause of gas gangrene? Clostridium perfringens
What is the pharmacological classification of Furosemide? diuretic
Which has the highest tensile strength but poor handling qualities? stainless steel
Lasix is a: diuretic
The ability of a microbe to move by itself can be provided by: cilia
The most common side effects of drugs include all except: hemorrhage and edema
The arousal from general anesthesia after cessation of the anesthetic agent is called: emergence
What is another name for a stick tie? suture ligature
Childbirth labor may be induced by: Oxytocin - Pitocin
The finger-like projections on the end of the fallopian tubes are: fimbriae
Which of the following is a "basic right" for correct drug handling? drug and dosage
Which is a seminal tract accessory gland that surrounds the urethra? prostate
Agar is an: agent used to solidify growth media in the microbiology laboratory
What is the trade name for polyglactin 910? Vicryl
The prefix that means "above" or "upon" is: epi-
A tendon is defined as a structure that attaches: muscle to bone
The upper portion of the stomach is called the: fundus
Which type of needle point would be selected for use on tendon or skin? cutting
The left coronary artery divides into the: anterior interventricular and circumflex
Where does the exchange of gases take place in the lungs? alveoli
One of the distinguishing features of viruses is that they are: obligate intracellular parasites
Which would have a positive effect on wound healing? early ambulation
Which is a hypertrophic scar formation? keloid
Where is CSF formed? choroid plexuses
Which artery supplies blood to the brain? carotid
The pre-op medication used to neutralize stomach acidity is: sodium citrate (Bi-Citra)
Which are procaryotic? bacteria
Which is a passive drain that allows fluid to exit by capillary action? penrose
The colon ends at the: anal canal
Which is a narcotic antagonist? naloxone hydrochloride (Narcan)
The combining form meaning "gland" is: aden/o
Which ligament suspends the uterus? broad
Which type of scar formation is considered hypertrophic? keloid
Diuretics are used intraoperatively to: decrease intracranial pressure
The type of surgical laser is determined by its: active medium
What does the prefix "contra-" mean? against, opposite
The brain contains how many ventricles? 4
The anatomical structure that creates CSF is the: choroid plexuses
Which salivary gland is drained by Stensen's duct parotid
The type of fracture that is caused by forcing one bone upon another is: impacted
Irregular shaped bones that develop in the sutures of the skull are called: wormian - sutural
Which term refers to the end of a bone: epiphysis
Which is the most inert in tissue? polypropylene
Immediately after receiving a medication, the CST should: label the medication
What classification is a Bake surgical instrument? dilating
The wavelength of laser light: ranges from infrared to deep UV
Which laser should not be used in the presence of clear fluids? CO2
The abnormal enlargement of male breasts is called: gynecomastia
What is the classification of Surgilon? synthetic nonabsorbable multifilament
The inferior portion of the brain stem is the: medulla
In which surgical procedure would blunt needles be used? liver resection
The second cervical vertebra is called the: axis
The largest ball-and-socket joint is the: hip
What does the suffix "-otomy" mean? incision
The inner most layer of the eye is: retina
The colon begins at the: cecum
Which of the following makes up the inner tunic of the eye and receives images? retina
An example of a flat bone is the: cranial
Laser light travels: in a straight line
What is the primary function of the Islets of Langerhans? maintain blood sugar level
1 cc of solution is equivalent to: 1 mL
What does the abbreviation NPO mean? nothing by mouth
The prefix "hemi-" means: half
A solid granular mass that develops on the ovary after the release of an ovum is the: corpus luteum
Muscle is attached to bone by: tendon
Which is a monofilament nonabsorbable suture? prolene
The abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the underside of the penis is referred to as: hypospadias
Which medication does not inhibit blood coagulation? calcium
A patient with indirect and direct hernia has what type of hernia? pantaloon
What degrees is 98.6 F equal to in Celsius? 37 deg. C
Which is a large vein that drains the head? jugular
The smallest microorganisms known are: viruses
Which is the outer layer of the colon? serosa
Which structure is found in the ventricles of the heart? papillary muscles
Microfibrillar collagen (Avitene) is a: hemostatic agent
A curved, tapered surgical needle is used most often on what type of tissue? intestine
What is the pharmacological action of hydrocortisone? anti-inflammatory
The passage of fluid and dissolved material into the thin membrane of a cell wall is: osmosis
The suffix that refers to suturing is: -rrhaphy
Which combining form means "eyelid"? blephar/o
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart caused by bacteria is known as: endocarditis
What portion of the backtable is considered sterile once the sterile field has been established? only the top
Which laser beam can travel through clear tissues without heating them? argon
The thyroid gland consists of right and left lobes joined by the: isthmus
The used of silk suture in urinary and bilary tract may result in: calculi
Which nerve is affected by carpal tunnel syndrome? median
Which division of the nervous system controls involuntary muscle contractions? autonomic
Which gland regulates body temperature? hypothalamus
Which two drug classifications are combined to produce neuroleptanalgesia? tranquilizer and narcotic
Removal of necrotic tissue is called: debridement
Cramp-like pains in the lower leg caused by poor blood circulation to the lower leg muscles is called: claudication
The gram stain differentiates between: bacteria
When opening an envelope-folded wrapper containing a sterile item the first flap is opened: away from self
Which nasal sinus is entered through an eyebrow incision? frontal
Craniosynostosis is a: premature closure of cranial sutures
Which joints permits movement in only one plane? hinge
Hepatomegaly is: enlarged liver
What is the general rule for prepping a contaminated area: prep the surrounding area first and the contaminated area last, using a separate sponge
The kneecap is also known as the: patella
Topical administration of drugs includes all except: parenteral
Which quadrant is the appendix located? right lower
Albumin, globulin and fibrinogen are: plasma proteins
A projection on the surface of a bone located above a condyle is called: epicondyle
The peripheral nervous system contains: cranial and spinal nerves
The olecranon process is part of which bone? ulna
The vertebrae are examples of what type of bone? irregular
Which medical term refers to the skin? integumentary
Retinal detachment is due to: leakage of liquid from vitreous cavity
Softening of bone is called: osteomalacia
Which of the following refers to the ability of the body to maintain a normal internal environment? homeostasis
Which is used to perform Schiller's test? Lugol's solution
The roof of the mouth is called the: palate
Which chemical hemostatic agent must never be injected? thrombin
What pathological term refers to failure of the lower esophageal muscles to relax? achalasia - cardiospasm
What does the suffix "-stasis" mean? stopping, standing still
Which term refers to the level of honesty and integrity that every CST must uphold in the delivery of quality patient care? surgical conscience
The mucous membrane covering the eye is called: conjunctiva
The small intestine begins at the: pylorus
What clotting factor does fibrinogen react with to form fibrin during the clotting process? thrombin
Streptokinase is used as a: fibrinolytic
Which are eucaryotic? fungi
What term refers to low blood volume? hypovolemia
Turning the hand so that the palm is upward is referred to: supination
The foramen magnum is an opening in which bone? occipital
The number of pairs of cranial nerves is: 12
Intestinal motility is called: peristalsis
Healthcare associated infections refers to: hospital acquired infections
Which of these local anesthetics is long-acting? Marcaine
Spherically-shaped bacteria that occur in chains are referred to as: streptococci
Cephalosporins are an: antibiotic
Which diseases is the result of invasion by a pathogen? pneumonia
Atheroma within the lumen of an artery is called: arteriosclerosis obliterans
What type of suture is used for tendon repair? polyethylene
Which of the following is a type of inflammatory bowel disease with chronic inflammation of the intestine? Crohn's
What does the number 4 represent in the decimal 0.02457? thousanths
Stat means: immediately
What is the outermost layer of the skin? epidermis
Which syringe is the most appropraite for administering a local anesthetic? luer-lok
The bone that articulates with the distal tibia and fibula is the: talus
Which directional term refers to the middle of the body? medial
What is the correct order of the layers of the meninges superficial to deep? dura, arachnoid, pia
The structure connecting the spinal cord with the brain is the: brain stem
The invasion of pathogens within the tissues of a host is called: infection
Reduced blood flow to an area is: ischemia
The fraction 1/4 is equal to: 0.25
Which non-absorbable suture may be used in the presence of infection? polypropylene
The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the blood or tissues is called: sepsis
Endorphins, enkephalins, dopamine, and serotonin are examples of: neurotransmitters
What cellular organelle serves as the site of protein synthesis? ribosomes
Microorganisms that grow best with a low level of oxygen supply are: microaerophiles
The number of extrinsic ocular muscles that control eye movement is: 6
The cranial nerve that may be injured during carotid endartectomy is the: hypoglossal - XII
The term staphylococcus is the arrangement of: cocci in clusters
Viruses reproduce by: host cell metabolism
A clinical symptom of shock is: hypotension
The normal pouches of the large intestine are called: haustra
Which bacteria requires oxygen? aerobic
What is the function of Bartholin's glands? secrete lubrication
Which absorbable sutures offers the longest duration of wound support? polydioxanone - PDS
Any instance in which a local anesthetic is injected to block or anesthetize a nerve is: regional anesthesia
The body's first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens is: unbroken skin
Anticoagulants: decrease the clotting time
A method of anesthesia in which anesthetic medication is injected into the subarachnoid space is: spinal
Microorganisms that have the ability to adapt to an aerobic or anaerobic environment are: facultative
Bone grafts are usually taken from the: iliac crest
The fifth cranial nerve is called the: Trigeminal
The outer covering of the heart is: pericardium
Which is the most common cause of a SSI? patient's endogenous flora
Which is the staining characteristic of gram-negative organisms? stain red
The diencephalon is composed of the: thalamus and hypothalamus
Narcotic analgesics produce their effects by: minimizing pain perception
Which is a life-threatening allergic reaction? anaphylaxis
Before donning the sterile gown and gloves the CST must: perform a surgical hand and arm scrub
Which can be achieved with the use of electrocautery? coagulation
Antibiotics given to prevent post-op infection are considered: prophylactic
The largest part of the brain is the: cerebrum
The longest bone in the body is the: femur
What does the term "hepat/o" mean? liver
The folds of the lining in the stomach are: rugae
The function of the sphincter of Oddi is to control the flow of: bile into the duodenum
Heparin is measured in: units
Which agent is used to perform a chromotubation? methylene blue
The purpose of the Foley catheter is to: drain the bladder in order to avoid injury
The only non-articulating bone in the body is the: hyoid
Millimeter - mm - is a unit used to measure: length
What does the prefix "inter-" mean? between
What is known as the measure of force required to break a suture? tensile strength
The first cervical vertebra is called the: atlas
The suffix meaning "blood condition" is: -emia
What organ of the body contains both striated and smooth muscles? heart
Created by: kenderle7