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Muskl & Nerve Trauma

A physical injury or wound, produced by internal or external force Trauma
Results from force or mechanical energy that changes state of rest or uniform motion of matter Mechanical Injury
External force acting on the body causing internal rxns within the tissue Load
Ability of a tissue to resist a load Stiffness
Internal resistance to a load Stress
Internal change in tissue (i.e. length) resulting in deformation Strain
On the Stress-Strain Curve, the phase where plastic changes occur before mechanical injury (time dependent) Creep
Point at which elasticity is almost exceeded Yield Point
Permanent changes that result if deformation persists Plastic Changes
When the yield point is far exceeded resulting in damage Mechanical failure
Force that pulls and stretches tissue Tension
Force that moves across the parallel organization of tissue Shearing
Type of force where two force pairs act at opposite ends of a structure (can occur with three forces as well) Bending
Loads caused by twisting in opposite directions from opposite ends Torsion
An injury that has initiated the injury process Acute
An injury that does not properly heal Chronic
Mechanism of injury that can be caused by a direct blow Traumatic
Mechanism of injury that can be caused by dynamic use over time Overuse
Some fibers stretched/torn, tenderness & painful AROM, full range present Grade I muscle/tendon strain
Number of fibers torn, painful active contraction, palpable divot, some swelling/discoloration Grade II muscle/tendon strain
Complete rupture of muscle/musculotendinous junction, significant impairment, great deal of pain (diminishes due to nerve damage) Grade III muscle/tendon strain
Painful involuntary skeletal muscle contraction caused by overload and high demand fatigue Muscle cramps
Involuntary muscle contraction in response to pain following injury (muscles splint the area) Muscle Guarding
A reflex reaction caused by trauma Muscle Spasms
Alternating involuntary muscular contractions and relaxations in quick sucession Clonic Muscle Spasm
Rigid contraction that lasts a period of time Tonic Muscle Spasm
Muscle pain experienced immediately after exercise, accompanies fatigue Acute-onset muscle soreness
Pain occurs 24-48 hrs following activity (potentially caused by microtrauma to muscle/connective tissue) Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
Gradual, repeated microtrauma causing tenderness, inflammation, and pain to tendon Tendonitis
Sticking of tendon due to inflammatory by-products Crepitus
Degenerative tendinitis resulting in swelling, stiffness, and restricted motion Tendinosis
An “umbrella” term that does not imply a particular tendon pathology Tendinopathy
Inflammation of synovial sheath Tenosynovitis
Discrete and hypersensitive nodule within a tight band of muscle or fascia. Develops from mechanical stress. Myofascial Trigger Point
Nodule that does not cause spontaneous pain, may become aware when pressure applied. May restrict movement or cause muscle weakness. Latent Trigger Point
Nodule that causes pain at rest, tender to palpation with referred pain (“jump sign”). Commonly found in postural muscles Active Trigger Point
Result of sudden blow to the body, can be superficial and deep (i.e. bruise) Contusion
Results from blood and lymph flows into surrounding tissue, encapsulated by connective tissue Hematoma
Chronically inflamed and contused tissue resulting in generation of calcium deposits Myositis Ossificans
Wasting away of muscle due to immobilization, inactivity, or loss of nerve function Atrophy
Abnormal shortening of muscle, resistance to passive stretch Contracture
Mild to moderate pain, minimal loss of function, no abnormal motion, and mild point tenderness Grade I ligament sprain
Moderate to severe pain, moderate loss of function, swelling, and instability with tearing and separation of fibers Grade II ligament sprain
Extremely painful, loss of function, severe instability and swelling. May represent subluxation. Surgical repair needed Grade III ligament sprain
Occurs when at least one bone in a joint is forced out of alignment and must be reduced Dislocation
Wearing of hyaline cartilage leads to changes in joint mechanics resulting in joint degeneration. Osteoarthritis
Irritation of fluid-filled sacs (bursa) causing swelling, pain, and loss of function (can be acute or chronic) Bursitis
Result of repeated joint trauma (joint capsule) Capsulitis
Develops following mistreatment of joint injury. Motion may be restricted and joint noises may develop. (Can be acute or chronic) Synovitis
The skull, ribs, and scapulae are what type of bone? Flat bones
The vertebrae and skull are what type of bone? Irregular bones
The wrist and ankle are what type of bone? Short bones
The humerus, ulna, tibia, radius, fibula, and femur are what type of bone? (Most commonly injured) Long bones
The hollow and cylindrical shaft of a bone, covered by compact bone. Medullary cavity contains yellow marrow lined by endosteum Diaphysis
Composed of cancellous bone covered by hyaline cartilage. Area for muscle attachment Epiphysis
Dense, white fibrous covering that penetrates bone via Sharpey’s fibers. Contains blood vessels and osteoblasts Periosteum
Deformity, pain, point tenderness, swelling, and painful active & passive movements (as it relates to bones). X-ray necessary for definitive diagnosis Bone fracture
Type of bone fracture where there is little movement or displacement Closed fracture
Type of bone fracture that involves displacement of fractured ends breaking through the surrounding tissue (i.e. skin) Open fracture
Type of bone fracture that results in focal tenderness and pain (early on) and pain with activity (later on). Becomes constant and more intense particularly at night. (Shows up on x-ray once healing has begun) Stress fracture
Injury to the growth plate in adolescents usually aged 10-16 years old (Salter-Harris Classification) Epiphyseal Injuries
Injury to the traction epiphyses (sites for origin and insertion of muscles). I.e. Severs disease and Osgood-Schlatter disease Apophyseal injury
Degenerative changes to epiphyses of bone during rapid child growth (3 possible causes) Osteochonndrosis
Inflammatory condition of bone and overlying articular cartilage that affects the joints of both immature and mature skeletons Osteochondritis dissecans
Interruption in nerve fiber conduction caused by compression or blunt trauma. Impacts motor function Neuropraxia
Created by: natamccl
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