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Managing People 1.4


State three things about F.W Taylor theory Workers do not naturally enjoy work and so need close supervision and control. Autocratic style of management. Piece rate pay should be used.
State three things to do with Abraham Maslow theory There are five hierarchies of need that explain why people work. Staff first want to meet their survival needs by earning a good wage. Safety needs such as job security then become important, followed by social, self-esteem and self-fulfilment needs.
Describe Herzberg two factor theory Factors that would motivate employees to work harder (motivators) e.g. empowerment and factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not actually motivate employees to work harder (hygiene factors) e.g. working conditions
Explain what Mayo believed Mayo believed that workers are not just concerned with money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work (something that Taylor ignored).
State 5 Non-Financial ways of motivating Time off, promotion, free health care,school fees payes, company car, free trips,pension,share options,free accomodation, expense accounts, gifts and privileges.
Define Job Enlargement It's where extra tasks are added to a job description giving more of a variety of work therefore increasing job satisfaction but do not add responsibility.
Define Job Enrichment Extra tasks that require more skill/responsibility are added. They fulfil higher human needs and make employees more committed.
Explain Teamworking Groups of workers are given responsibility for a particular process, product or development. They become more involved in the decision making process giving them a sense of control and increasing job satisfaction.
Discuss what is meant by Job Rotation Workers on a production line switch jobs for a while and it gives a change of work, it's very good for when someone's sick and their job needs covering: more people will know how to do the job. This does not make work more interesting.
Describe Job Satisfaction People need to be happy when they work, so if they are treated badly by management and the company gives them fringe benefits it won't make much of a difference.
Explain Piece rate People are paid according to the amount of products they make so the more they make the more money. It's used only when you can measure performance and workers usually work faster but quality is often ignored. Taylor would agree.
Define Commission A payment system usually operated by sales staff where their earnings are determined by how much they sell.
Define Bonus It's like commision but is given as a reward for doing well, non sales staff may be given bonuses.
What is Profit Sharing? Staff are sometimes given dividends of profit as well as their basic pay and is used to motivate people. Often used in service sectors.
Explain Performance Related Pay and give an example Pay linked to the effectiveness of a worker where it cannot be readily measured-Teachers, Police officers etc.It's when their immediate boss looks over them and then gives them a bonus.
Define Empowerment Involves giving people greater control over their working lives.
Describe Delegation This occurs when managers pass a degree of authority down the hierarchy to their subordinates.
What are Quality Circles? Group of workers that meet at regular intervals in order to identify any problems with quality within production, consider alternative solutions to these problems, and then recommend to management the solution
Define a Works Council This is a type of worker participation and it consists of regular discussions between managers and representatives of the workforce over such issues as how the business can improve its processes and procedures (in production for example).
State two Issues with Maslow Hierarchy of needs Not everyone has the same needs/Peoples perceptions on what is important at work will vary/Not realistic that everyone will reach the top of the hierarchy
State three things that would motivate workers according to Mayo Better communication between managers and workers/ Greater manager involvement in employees working lives/ Working in groups or teams
Explain Mayo's Human Relations School of Thought Mayo introduced the Human Relations School of thought, which focused on managers taking more of an interest in the workers, treating them as people who have worthwhile opinions and realising that workers enjoy interacting together.
List three Motivators from Herzberg Two Factor theory Responsibility/ Recognition for good work/ Opportunities for promotion
List three Hygiene Factors from Herzberg Two Factor theory Pay/Working conditions/Job security
Describe Self Actualisation needs Achieving ones full potential/achieving targets/ fulfilling potential
What are Psychological needs? Basic needs e.g. food/shelter/warmth and rest
Give two examples of Safety needs Safe working environment/ Job security
Give three examples of Esteem needs Prestige and feeling of accomplishment/Self respect/level of status
What would be classed as Social needs? Feeling wanted/sense of belonging/part of a team
List three things to do with Autocratic Leadership Senior managers make all decisions/ supervise and control workers/one way communication/managers do not trust workers. Suitable when quick decisions needs to be made.
Define Democratic Leadership Style involving consulting with subordinates and evaluating their opinions before making a decision.
What is Laissez faire Leadership and state one benefit? Employees are set objectives and they have to decide how best to achieve them. This method of leadership can result in high levels of enthusiasm for the task in-hand, but it can at times rely too much on the skills of the workforce.
Describe Paternalistic Leadership Autocratic in its approach but employees social and welfare needs are taken into account when a decision is made. The leader is likely to consult the workforce before implementing any decision, but he is unlikely to listen to much of the feedback.
Define Fringe Benefits and give three examples Items an employee received in addition to their wages/salary. Known as 'perks' e.g. free meals/health insurance/company car
What is Dismissal? When an employee’s contract is terminated due to a breach of the terms of that contract by the employee e.g. Incompetence or a Disciplinary matter such as theft or behaviour
What is Unfair Dismissal and how does it differ to Dismissal? When an employee’s contract is terminated but the reason is seen as unfair in the eyes of the law e.g. being pregnant or an unrelated criminal record
What is Redundancy and how is it similar to Dismissal? A form of dismissal when an employee’s contract of employment is terminated because the job no longer exists. This may occur as a result of a change in the businesses needs including: Closure, Restructuring, Relocation, New technology and Rationalisation
Define Hard HRM and give two features Staff are treated as a resource that must be managed in order for the business to control costs and output Features include;Centralised decision making, Tall organisational structure, Fixed term contracts, Minimum wage and External recruitment
Define Soft HRM and give two features Staff are treated as an asset to the business that can contribute and help the business achieve its objectives. Features include; Staff development, Training, Internal promotion, Empowerment, Consultation and Flatter organisational structure
What is Employee representation? The systems put in place to aid communication between employers and employees.
Define Employer/employee relations The defining features of how employers and employees interact with each other on a day to day basis
Define a Trade Union and give an example National organisations with a remit to protect its members and improve their economic and working conditions e.g. NUT. Objectives of TUs; Securing jobs, maximising pay, Ensuring safe and acceptable conditions and Fair treatment of members by employers
Describe what is meant by Part-time employees Contracted to work less hours than a full time employee e.g. 3 days a week. Hours can be increased if there is an increase in demand. Legally, part-time workers should not be treated less favourably than full time workers
What is a Temporary Employee classed as? A person who is contracted to work for a business for a specified period of time e.g. 6 months to cover maternity leave
Describe Flexible hours Give some degree of independence to the employees to choose their own hours of work. Normally there are certain boundaries e.g. 36 hours a week must be done anytime between 7am and 5pm per day but the employee must be in between 10hrs and 4hrs each day.
Describe Homeworking The ability to work from home rather than travelling into the workplace. Increases flexibility to the employee, Reduces costs to the employer and is made easier by advances in technology
Define Outsourcing The practise of using the services of other organisations to complete all or parts of the manufacturing process
Define Zero Hours Contracts and state one drawback This means that employees are on call to work when required by employers. However, the employers don’t have to give the employees work and the employees don’t have accept work when asked.
What is meant by an Individual Approach? An employee could opt to take an individual approach to employer/employee relations. Each employee would negotiate individually with management for their own interest e.g. pay or working conditions
Define Leadership The ability to influence and direct people in order to meet the goals of a group
Define Management The process through which company resources are used and decisions made in order to meet the objectives of the firm
What are Leaders? People that can inspire and motivate people to meet objectives
What are Managers? Set objectives and decide how to go about achieving them. They lead/motivate, make decisions and review performance
Define Recruitment The steps undertaken by a business to identify a vacancy and attract suitable candidates; this can be internal or external
Define Selection The actions taken by a business to help identify the best candidate for a job
Explain the Recruitment and Selection Process 1. Identifying the vacancy 2.Job description 3.Person specification 4.Advertising the vacancy 5.Receiving applications 6.Short listing and References 7.Assessing candidates 8.Offering the position
Define Internal Recruitment and give one benefit Internal recruitment occurs when candidates for a position are recruited from within the organisation. Leads to lower recruitment costs and improved promotion prospects. But, limits the number of applicants and reduces talent available
Define External recruitment and give one benefit? External recruitment occurs when candidates are recruited from outside of the organisation. Increases the talent available and increases the number of applicants. However, higher recruitment costs and may upset overlooked internal candidates.
Describe Psychometric testing and give some examples of what it can involve Involves a mixture of the following; 1. Aptitude – measures the ability to develop skills and acquire knowledge 2. Attainment – measuring levels of understanding e.g. maths 3. Personality – measuring aspects of a candidate’s behaviour
Describe the Alec Rodger’s Seven Point Plan The 7 Point Plan for carrying out selection interviews: Physical make-up – appearance Attainments – education Intelligence – ability to evaluate Aptitudes – special skills Interests – active Disposition – maturity Circumstances – availability
State three Costs of Recruitment 1.Time drawing up job descriptions and person specifications (if these do not already exist) 2.Placing advertisements in newspapers or journals 3. Fees paid to a recruitment consultancy
Describe three Costs of Training 1. Productivity time lost by employee receiving training 2. Productivity time lost by a second employee if training is provided in house 3. Fees paid to an external training provider plus employees travel costs
List two Costs of Selection 1. Managers time shortlisting and interviewing 2. Candidate expenses if reimbursed for interviews 3. Fees paid to assessment centres
Define Training The process of equipping employees with the skills and knowledge necessary to carry out their job effectively
Describe On-the–job training Employee learns in the workplace from experienced employees. Supervisor coaches the worker through the job stage by stage. Experienced worker may also demonstrate how the work is to be carried out
Describe Off-the–job training Any form of education that takes place outside of the workplace. Can involve sending workers away or having training in the same building but away from where they will be working. Likely to be more for general skills rather than job specific
Describe Induction Training Introductory training for employees new to an organisation
Define Decentralisation Widespread delegation/ passing of power down to lower levels in the hierarchy for decision-making
Explain Delayering The removal of one or more layers from a hierarchy. The removal of middle managers.
Describe Centralisation Centralisation means that only the top levels of the hierarchy have the authority to make decisions
Define what is meant by an organisational Organisational Structure The way in which a business is arranged to carry out its activities Can be shown in an organisation chart
Define a Hierarchy The structure of the workforce within an organisation showing who is accountable to whom
Describe three features Tall and Thin structures This occurs where each superior is responsible for a few subordinates. This allows for closer supervision and communication between the two levels
Describe two features of Wide and Flat Structures This means that each superior is responsible for a large number of subordinates. This requires greater delegation but fewer levels allowing for quicker communication through the firm
State what is meant by a Chain of command The way authority and power is passed down the levels of hierarchy. The longer the chain of command the slower communication and potentially decision making
Define Span of control Shows the number of subordinates that a manager or supervisor is directly responsible for
Describe a benefit of Wide Span of Control If a manager has many subordinates. A wide span of control offers greater decision making authority for subordinates
Describe a benefit of Narrow Span of Control If they have few subordinates. Narrow span of control allows tight supervision and close control
Describe what a matrix structure is A structure where teams are put together from different functional areas to work on specific projects
State two advantages of the Matrix Structure Can help to break down traditional department barriers, improving communication across the entire organisation/ Can allow individuals to use particular skills within a variety of contexts
State two disadvantages of the Matrix Structure Members of project teams may have divided loyalties as they report to two line managers/There may not be a clear line of accountability for project teams given the complex nature of matrix structures/Difficult to coordinate
State three advantages of a tall structure Areas of the business are closely managed/Managers have tight control over employees/Excellent progression opportunities
Give two disadvantages of a tall structure There is slow communication due to a long chain of command/Organisational changes can be slow to implement
Give two advantages of a flat structure Less layers leads to better communication/More autonomy and responsibility for employees/Employees may feel more motivated, therefore being more productive
State two disadvantages of a flat structure Lack of progression opportunities/Higher workloads for managers/Managers have more subordinates
State two methods of on the job training Job rotation - where the trainee is given several jobs in succession, to gain experience of a wide range of activities Coaching - a method of training that involves a close working relationship between an experienced employee and the trainee
State two methods of off the job training (1)Day release (employee takes time off work to attend a local college or training centre) (2)Distance learning / evening classes (3)Block release courses - which may involve several weeks at a local college
Give one drawback of Job Enlargement Job enlargement is sometimes viewed by employees as a requirement to carry out more work for the same amount of pay!
State one drawback of Job Enrichment It is important when implementing job enrichment that workers have the necessary training and skills, otherwise it could lead to reduced quality, lower productivity and dissatisfaction.
State two advantages of a Centralised Structure Quicker decision making/Easier to co-ordinate and control
State two disadvantages of a Centralised Structure More bureaucratic (often extra layers)/Lack of authority down the hierarchy may reduce manager motivation
Give one advantage of a Decentralised structure Better able to respond to local circumstances e.g. local branches can deal with issues/Should improve staff motivation/Consistent with aiming for a flatter hierarchy
What are the potential issues of Decentralisation? Harder to ensure consistent polices and practices at each location/Who provides the leadership in a crisis e.g. branch managers or senior (higher) managers?
State three problems of delayering A period of disruption may occur as people take on new responsibilities and fulfil new roles/Those managers remaining will have a wider span of control which, if it is too wide, can damage communication within the business/Motivation levels could drop
State two benefits of Delayering Offers opportunities for better delegation, empowerment & motivation as the number of managers is reduced & more authority passed down the hierarchy/It can remove departmental rivalry if department heads are removed & workforce is organised more in teams
Created by: durquhart1
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