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Ch 3


Cells biochemical compounds form functional units
Somatic Cell all body cells except sex cells
Cholesterol maintain fluidity of cell membrane
Integral Proteins within the membrane
Peripheral Proteins bound to inner or outer surface of the membrane/ doesn't go through the membrane
Anchoring Proteins attach to inside or outside structures
Recognition Proteins label cells as normal or abnormal
Enzymes catalyzes reactions
Receptor Proteins bind and respond to ligands
Carrier Proteins transport specific solutes through membranes
Channels regulate water flow and solutes passing through membrane
Gated Channels open or close to regulate passage of substances
Diffusion movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to low
Osmosis diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane in response to solute differences
Osmotic Pressure force of water movement into a solution
Hydrostatic Pressure pressure needed to block osmosis
Tonicity the effects of osmosis on cells
Isotonic no net gain or loss of water
Hypotonic net gain of water into cells
Hemolysis cell swells or bursts
Hypertonic net water flow out of cell
Crenation cell shrinks or shrivels up
Carrier Mediated Transport proteins transport ions or organic substrates across plasma membrane
Symport (cotransport) two substances move in the same direction at the same time
Antiport (counter-transport) one substance moves in while another moves out
Facilitated Diffusion carrier proteins transport molecules too large to fit through channel proteins
Active Transport proteins move substrates against concentration gradients
Ion Pumps move ions
Exchange Pumps move two ions in opposite directions at the same time
Primary Active Transport pumping solutes against a concentration gradient using ATP
Sodium Potassium Exchange Pump One ATP powers the movement of three sodium ions out, and two potassium ions in
Secondary Active Transport ATP is required to establish a concentration gradient of one substance in order to passively transport another
Vesicular Transport (bulk transport) materials move into or out of the cell in vesicles
Endocytosis importation of extracellular materials packaged within vesicles which requires ATP
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis specific molecules are ingested into the cell
Pinocytosis endosomes drink extracellular fluid
Phagocytosis large objects are engulfed in phagosomes
Exocytosis granules or droplets are released from the cell as a vesicle fuses to plasma membrane
Created by: forty298