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Ch 1 & 2


Anatomy describes the structures of the body
Physiology the study of the functions of anatomical structures
Gross Anatomy if we can see it with the naked eye, examines large visible structures
Microscopic Anatomy examines cells and molecules
Cytology study of the cells
Histology study of the tissues
Embryology the study of embryo and fetus
Cell Physiology function of the cells
Organ Physiology function of specific organs
Systemic Physiology function of organ systems
Pathological Physiology effects of diseases on organs or systems
Atom smallest living form of matter
Molecule two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
Cells smallest living units in the body
Tissue group of cells working together
Organs two or more tissues working together
Organ System a group of interacting organs
Organism individual life form
Surface Anatomy locating structures on or near the body surface
Anatomical position hands at side, palms forward
Supine lying down, face up
Prone lying down, face down
Sectional Anatomy a slice through a three dimensional object
Sectional Plane a single view along a two dimensional flat surface
Frontal (coronal plane) vertical plane that divides body into anterior and posterior
Sagittal Plane vertical plane dividing body into left and right
Midsagittal plane lies in the middle
Parasagittal offest from the middle
Transverse Plane divides body into superior and inferior
Homeostasis all body systems work together to maintain a stable internal environment
Autoregulation automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ to an environmental change
Extrinsic Regulation responses controlled by nervous and endocrine systems
Negative Feedback the response of the effector negates or opposes the stimulus
Postive feedback Initial stimulus produces a response that amplifies or adds the original change in conditions
Postive Feedback Loop completes a dangerous process quickly to reestablish homeostasis
System Integration systems work together to maintain homeostasis
Isotope elements with similar numbers of protons but different number of neutrons
Compound a chemical substance composed of atoms of two or more elements
Ionic attraction between positive cations and negative anions
Non polar Covalent Bond no difference in charges
Polar Covalent Bond has a + and - charge in poles
Hydrogen Bonds weak forces that affect the shape and properties of compounds
Chemical Notation short hand that describes chemical compounds and reactions
Work movement of an object or change in its physical state
Energy the ability to do work
Kinetic Energy energy of motion
Potential Energy stored energy resulting from position of structure
Metabolism sum of all reactions
Exergonic Reactions produce more energy than they use
Endergonic Reactions use more energy than they produce
Activation Energy the amount of energy needed to begin a reaction
Specificity one enzyme catalyzes one reaction
Saturation Limit an enzymes maximum work rate
Regulation the ability to turn on and off
Nutrients essential chemical compounds obtained from the diet
Metabolites molecules synthesized or broken down inside the body
Organic Compound compound that has hydrogen and carbon
Inorganic Compound doesn't primarily have carbon and hydrogen
Solution a uniform mixture of two or more substances
Solvent medium in which molecules of solute are dispersed
High Heat Capacity the ability of water molecules to absorb a large amount of heat before hydrogen bonds between the water molecules are broken
Solubility many organic and inorganic molecules will dissolve in water
Reactivity reactions occur in water and water is a reactant in many reactions
Lubrication little friction between water molecules
Hydrophilic compounds that dissolve in water
Hydrophobic compounds that don't dissolve in water
Aqueous Solution a solution in which the solvent is water
Colloid a solution of very large organic molecules
Suspension a solution in which particles settle
Concentration the amount of solute in a solvent
Electrolytes inorganic ions which conduct electricity in solution
Salt an electrolyte whose cation is not hydrogen and anion is not hydroxide
Buffer a solution that can maintain constant pH
Acid release hydrogen ions into solution
Base remove hydrogen ions from solution
pH a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions solution
Carbohydrate group of organic molecules
Proteins chains of amino acids
Polypeptides linear sequences of amino acids held together by peptide bonds
Denatured no longer in their natural state
Nucleic Acids store and process information at the molecular level
Phosporylation adding a phosphate group to ADP with a high energy bond to form the high energy compound ATP
Adenosine Triphosphatase (ATPase) the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and ADP
Created by: forty298



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