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Transfusion reaction

QuestionAnswer
Rapid destruction of RBCs immediately or within 24 hrs. Hypotensioin, shock, consumptive coagulopathy, and acute renal failure. High mortality rate. Most common cause is clerical error (misidentification resulting in ABO mismatch). Acute Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction
Rapid onset of chills and fever, usually >2C, rigors, diarrhea/vomiting, profound hypotension, shock. Common cause is platelets stored at RT Transfusion-Associated Sepsis (TAS)
Acute complication with FEVER, chills, nausea/vomiting, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, tachypnea. Caused by donor cytokines in plasma or WBCs. Must consider acute hemolytic transfusion reaction and bacterial sepsis as part of differential Febrile Non-Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction (FNHRT)
Acute, immune complication that occurs as a response to recipient antibodies to an allergen. Symptoms: Weals, erythema, urticaria (mild, self limiting) Allergic Transfusion Reaction (ALTR)
Severe reaction. Bronchoconstriction, tongue swelling, shock. Usually seen in IgA deficient patients. Anaphylactic Transfusion Reaction
Symptoms occur within 6 hours of transfusion. Severe and possibly fatal. Chills, fever, dyspnea, non-productive cough, HYPOTENSION. Severe respiratory distress and hypoxemia. Chest x-ray shows bilateral infiltrates with no cardiac enlargement. Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)
What reaction is related to increased HLA antibodies due to pregnancy and can be avoided by using only male donors? Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)
Acute, non-immune complication that presents during or after transfusion. Fluids accumulate faster than circulation can accomodate volume load. Symptoms: Cough, dyspnea, pulmonary congestion, headache, hypertension, tachycardia, distended neck veins. Transfusion Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO)
Detection of "new" RBC antibodies 24 hours after transfusion (especially Kidd). Occurs most commonly secondary to an amnestic response. May be associated with shortened survival of transfused cells. Delayed Serologic/Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction (DSHTR)
Delayed immune transfusion reaction due to an immunologic attack by viable donor lymphocytes. Symptoms: Skin rash to trunk and extremities 3-30 days post txn, fever, leukopenia, hepatitis, secondary infections, DEATH Transfusion Associated Graft Vs Host Disease (TAGVHD)
Delayed immune complication with profound thrombocytpenia 1-24 days post transfusion. Previously pregnant or transfused patient has antibody to platelet antigen, usually HPA 1a. Self limiting within 2 weeks Post Transfusion Purpura (PTP)
Delayed, non immune complication with multi organ damage secondary to excessive iron accumulation Iron Overload
Created by: tessj