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Mythology/Odyssey

QuestionAnswer
What is a myth/mythology? study of the way early man explained his world (passed down orally), created by poets, made stories about gods/goddesses. created as entertaining stories w/ serious purpose, often a warning or cautionary tale.
What is Chaos? the original emptiness.
What was born from Chaos? Gaea (Mother Earth), Tartarus, Eros (love)
Gaea gave birth to who originally? Uranus (father sky), Ourea (mountains), Pontus (sea)
Gaea married Uranus and gave birth to... 1st gen 3 hundred handed giants, 3 cyclopes , and 13 titans
Cronus over threw his father by... came out his hiding place while Uranus was sleeping, he used a sharp stone to stab Uranus.
Cronus and Rhea children (married his sister)... Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseiden,
Cronus TITAN, married sister Rhea, became of gods, emasculated Uranus, god of sky, swallows his children
Helious TITAN, god of sun, drove sun across sky in a chariot
Selene TITAN, goddess of moon
Oceanus TITAN, god of river
Themis TITAN, goddess of prophecy at Delphi (Greece), oracle
Rhea (cybele) TITAN, married brother Cronus, goddess of earth, became parents of the Greek gods, wants to hide 6th child (Zeus) from Cronus
Atlas TITAN, strongest of them, help up the sky so it wouldn't fall on earth
Prometheus TITAN, most intelligent/clear, created 1st mortal woman (Pandora), gave man fire, eternally punished
Gaea 1st being
Tartarus darkest part of the underworld
Eros beauty inspired by creation of many deathless gods
Uranus married gaea, provided homes for immortal beings, emasculated by Cronus, Gaea's equal
Ourea (mountains) the goddess of mountains of the world, primordial deity
Pontus (sea) premordial deites, god of sea
hundred handed giant 50 arms/head, threat to Uranus' power, thrown down to earth, landed in Tartarus region
Cyclops had one eye, expert craftsmen, built places on Mt. Olympus, thrown deep into the earth
Prometheus' importance created first mortal being (clay and water), brought fire,
Hestia (Vesta) 1st child of cronus and rhea, swallowed by father, garidan of home and hearth, no personality, 1/3 of virgin goddesses on Olympus
Demeter (Ceres) swolled, goddess of grain, daughter is Persephone
Hera (Juno) queen of olympus, goddess of marriage and childbirth, Zues's wife, symbol=peacock
Hades (Pluto) helmet of invisibility, kidnapped Persephone, cruel and unpitying, angry at brothers
Posieden (Neptune) trident from cyclopse, wife=amplitrite (goddess of dolphins), many affairs
Zeus (Jupiter/Jove) 7th child of Cronus and Rhea, hidden from Cronus at Mt. Dicte, womanizer, supreme ruler of the universe, wife=hera
Zues and Hera's children Apollo, Artemeis, Athena, Aphrodite, The Fates, Ares, Hephaestus, Hermes
Hermes the god's and goddesse's messanger, swift and graceful in motion, Son of Zues and Maia (daughter of Atlas), sign-winged sandal
Hephaestus god of fire, metalsmith, married to Aphrodite, son of Hera, born deformed, thrown from mt olympus, kind and peaceful, symbol=fire,andvil, and hammer
Ares god of war, ONLY REAL CHILD OF ZEUS AND HERA, arrogant and crul, many affairs + w Aphrodite, symbol=volture
The Fates determined the fate for each individual, 3 immortal women
Persephone queen of the underworld, married to Hades, mother is Demeter
Aphrodite beautiful
Athena goddess of war and crafts and defensive war, 1/3 of virgin goddesses, city named after her, daughter of zues NO MOTHER, zues' favorite, symbol=olive tree
Artemis goddess of the hunt, moon and youth, twin of Apollo, 1/3 of the virgin goddesses
Apollo god of prophecy, medicine and archery, twin to Artemis, plays lyre, taught men the art of healing
Demeter's goddess status goddess of harvest and grain , made the crops grow every year
Hephaestus's birth story Hera gave birth, then threw the child off the cliff of Mt. Olympus, then was crippled for life
Theseus' status as a demigod he was the king aegean, but cannot be a prince because of politics. his dad has 50 sons
How did Theseus use advice to overcome his weakness? he used his size (tiny/scrawny) against his enimies
How did Theseus's human flaw kill his death he forgot to put up a white sail when coming home, his father got upset and drowned himself
How is his father's death responsible for the geography King Aegean drowned himself, later name the Aegean Sea
Perseus' demigod status mortal mother, father is zues
How did Perseus' use advice to capture Medusa's head? Athena tells him to be careful because he can be turned into stone if he looks at him
How does Perseus use Medusa's head to help other? uses it to freeze Atlas and a sea monster to protect Andromeda
How is Medusa's head responsible for world geography? Atlas holds up the sky forever, the Atlas mtns came to be. Poseidon responsible for earthquakes=tsunami, blood of medusa snakes of Africa, Perseus throwing disk= Olympic games
How does Per. fulfill the prophecy? he killed Acrisois
Cupids mother and her feelings for Psyche Venus, wants him to be cursed, to fall in love w a mean unworthy being
Psyche and her marriage she is cupids wife,
Why does Psyche's husband leave her and how does she get him back because she looked at her husband, she looks to Demeter.
the connection to greek mythology cupid (eros)
the moral of the story of cupid and psyche beauty is only skin deep
epic structure long narrative poem, divided into 24 books/chapters, deals w kings/queens
epic conventions speech to develope characters in interesting way, extended similes, allusions, epithets
oral storytelling stories that are told orally not written down
who was involved in the Trojan war trojans and the spartans
what happened in the Trojan war prince paris of troy took helen from menacelus
how did the Trojan war end? Odysseus builds a wooden horse and lives it on the shore for the Trojans. at night they sneak out and burn the troy to the grounds
common themes in the Odysseus loyalty, pride and honor, resisting temptations
homer opens up with a prayer. who does he ask to help him sing his tale? the muses to help
who were the 9 people and what did they do that makes them worthy of telling homer's tale? they were the 9 daughters of zues, inspired people to produce artistic pieces
homer says " but not by will nor valor could he save them, for their own recklessness destroyed them all", what does this mean? doomed themselves
in book 5, who kept Odysseus a prisoner? describe his mood calypso, helpless
how many years has he spent w Calypso? 7
who is O's protector? Athena
what does Athena do to help O out of his imprisonment? begs zues to help, zues agrees and sent a messenger, Hermes to order for him to be free
what does Calypso promise to O? why is she considered a threat? promises him immorality, she keeps him from his wife
what is hermes compared to how a seagull flies low to hunt and how hermes skimmed across the water
How does O respond when Calypso says "can i be less desirable that she is"? he avoids it by saying he just wants to go home and that his wife is aging so Calypso is prettier
why do the Phoenicians show O great hospitably and kindness? they believed all guests were god sent
who is O's father? Laertes
where is O's home? near the sea of Ithaca
what kind of army were the Cicones? fought on horse back
what kind of people were the Lotus eaters they were calm and wanted no harm, hippies
what deeper meaning can be taken from this episode with the Lotus eaters? it is better to have someone care about you even when you thing you don't need it
what is the Cyclops's name? Polyphemus
who is the cyclops related to? Poseidon
what does Polyphemus represent? the brutal force that any hero must overcome before being successful
why is O considered the cleverest of the ancient Greeks? the strategies he uses to trick others
what Greek custom does he ask the cyclops to honor? asks him to honor Greek hospitably
what does O lie about? his ship being wrecked
O proves he is the "shrewdest of the Greeks" by telling the cyclops his name is? nobody
list 5 clever actions 1.coming up w name (nobody) 2. telling cyclops that he was stranded 3. rode sheep outside (under them) 4. gets the cyclops drunk 5. didn't kill it, just blinded him
what serious mistake did O make when he and his crew sailed away? taunt the cyclops, said his own name
how does O exhibits hubris? excessive pride, having to say his own name
what did Aeolus do for O as a favor? he puts all the stormy winds in a bag
what happens to all the men that enter in Circe's home? turns them into pigs
what does Circe commands O to do? to go to the land of the dead by himself
in the land of the dead, o seeks what destiny? Teriresias
what is teriesias' prophecy? warning anguish from zues and Poseidon, sail through narrow, restrain himself from and sailors, don't eat the cows on Thrinakia, people are going to want his wife, need to kill the people that want his wife, create new place, have a sea-borne death
theiresians says "but if you raid the beeves,i see destruction fro ship and crew" what does this foreshawdow? his men eat the cows
what advice does circe give Odysseus about the sirens? stay away, plug men's ears w beeswax
what if O wants to hear their voices? let his men tie him up to the ship and double tie him
what is syclla? serpent like person, 6 heads, 12 legs, neck is half her length
what is Charybdis? undersea monster, whirlpool as mouth, opens and swallows everything 3x a day
how does O handle the sirens? tied up, ears stuffed w beeswax on sailors
why does O not warn his men about the sea monster? bc they would hide and not help
how does O demonstrate leadership wen the men are heading toward sylla? gives them a pep talk
what weakness in leadership is o showing when he lands on Thrinakia? tells the men not to eat the cows but they do it anyways
who tells the crew that famine is the worse most pitiful end that man can come to? what is this man's plan to avoid punishment? eurylochus, sacrifice the best cow to the sky gods and build them a temple for lord of noon when they arrive home
when O wakens/heads down shore he realizes what? realizes that they ate the cattle bc he smells the meat
what does athena tell O and why? tells him to disguise as beggar bc his home is full of enemies
what has been going on at O's palace? has been overrun by his wife's suitors
what does Athena warn Telemachus about? someone is planning to ambush him
what happened to Argos when O left to the Trojan war? got forgotten and got old/useless
what does Eumaeus say about servants? "without a master they have no will to labor"
what happens to Argos after he realizes his owns is home? dies
o talks to P, what is he testing? her loyalty
the beggar pretends he has met O and he cannot resist praising the lost hero, what is this an example of? hubris
what does the nurse do for O, and how does she recognize O from? wash his feet, scar on his leg
in book 21 Penelope proposes an impossible task for a suitor to marry her, what is it? to string O's bow, impossible for anyone but O
what does the contest entail for P to marry? bend/string bow, send arrow through iron ax-handle
how does o prove he's real? show the scar from hunting on Parnassus
people on O's side Umayeus, telemachus, zues, apollo, cowherd, athena, urechuyla
what does O tell the unfaithful maids? clean the house and the dead bodies
eurclearia runs to p to tell her that O returned, p is unsure and tentative, why? thinks it's a trick from the gods
how does P test O to make sure he's really him? secret signs that only they know
why is P and O bed special? no mortal can move it and there is a tree trunk as a bed post
Created by: Meili21