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PHL 250

TermDefinition
unadjusted gender pay gap The difference in average earnings between genders, taking into account all members of each gender.
adjusted gender pay gap The difference in average earnings between genders, taking into account differences in employment, education, industry, etc.
relevant difference principle Any two individuals deserve equal treatment unless there is a morally relevant difference between them
moral philosophy The critical examination of value and normativity (right and wrong action).
descriptive ethics The study of moral beliefs and practices.
prescriptive ethics The study of morality itself.
argument A set of claims, one of which (the conclusion) is supposed to be supported by the others (the premises).
moral claim Any claim about what is or is not valuable, what should or should not be done.
instrumental value The worth something has due to what that thing can be used to achieve or acquire.
non-instrumental value The worth something has due to what it is, in and of itself.
market economy A system where the price of products is determined by supply and demand
price gouging Raising the prices of goods and services to take advantage of a desperate situation
interest based approach An approach to ethics that takes interests to be of primary importance when determining what should be done
moral right A state whereby others bear a moral obligation toward the right holder.
negative right A right to non-interference from others.
positive right A right to be provided with something
rights based approach An approach to ethics that takes moral rights to play a significant role in determining what should be done.
commodification The process of bring the distribution of goods and services under the control of market forces.
moral hazards A situation in which the benefit of an action goes to one party but the cost of the action goes to another.
disenfranchisement Being prevented from voting by institutional forces.
mortgage A loan in which has real estate as the collateral
market bubble A period during which an investment is dramatically overpriced.
perverse incentive A structure that encourages people to engage in undesirable activities.
outsourcing The act of having an external party take on some activity that one formerly did for oneself.
tariff A tax that one nation places on goods being imported from other nations.
duty based approach An approach to ethics that focuses on the moral obligations that arise from relationships.
all-things-considered duty What you are morally required to do after taking into account all of your pro tanto duties.
pro tanto duty A moral consideration in favor of a particular action, possibly outweighed by other considerations.
duty of reparation A duty that one acquires through some past action of one’s own.
duty of reparation A duty that one acquires through the past action of another.
loyalty A commitment to remain in a relationship even when doing so is not in one’s best interest.
transactional relationship A relationship that exists purely to serve some purpose; that is not valued beyond its ability to serve that purpose.
closed shop A workplace in which one must be a member of a union in order to gain employment
right-to-work state A state where closed shops are illegal
difference principle If there are no morally relevant differences between two cases, then those two cases should be treated the same
unwitting discrimination Discrimination that unintentionally results from unconscious or tacit attitudes
implicit bias Attitudes or mental associations that one has about a group of people without conscious awareness or acceptance
institutional discrimination Discrimination that results from policies and practices of institutions, rather than from the choices of particular individuals
quid pro quo harassment A situation in which one’s employment prospects depend on submitting to someone’s sexual Advances
hostile work environment harassment A situation in which one finds it difficult to perform one’s job because of the sexualized treatment by others
tacit consent Consent resulting from inaction, e.g., not saying ‘no’, rather than positive action, e.g., saying ‘yes’
affective forecasting Predictions that we make concerning how we would feel or react in a situation
cognitive dissonance The uncomfortable state of holding conflicting beliefs
workplace retaliation Actions taken to punish someone for exercising their legal rights
self-evident The state of a proposition that needs no evidence to be justifiably believed
state of nature The way things are before humans have interfered with them.
internality A cost or a benefit that applies to a party because of that party’s actions
externality A cost or a benefit that applies to a party because of another party’s actions
tragedy A situation in which good choices lead to bad consequences
commons A resource that is used by many
global carbon sink The amount of carbon that the Earth can absorb and convert
cost benefit analysis decision procedure which the costs that would result from a course of action are compared to the benefits that would (likely) result from that action, and the resulting ratio is compared to the cost-benefit ratio for other available actions
Anthropocentric Environmental Ethics An approach to environmental ethics that asserts that humans are the only things that deserve non-instrumental moral consideration
agent Some party that can takes an intentional action
moral responsibility The state of deserving praise or blame for an action or event
greenwashing Representing products as environmentally-friendly when they are not
lobbyist Someone who attempts to affect the decisions made by the government
fracking A process of forcing liquid into bedrock to open cracks and access otherwise inaccessible resources
Created by: pace_sauce
 

 



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