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TermDefinition
abstraction removing detail to simplify a complex object or concept; generalizing an idea to identify its essence
high level languages programming languages most programmers use
assembly language language of operating systems
machine language converted to binary numbers
electric signals what the machine language gets converted to
data a bunch of facts that are not in any sort of order; usually unreadable
information data that has been processed and organized into a meaningful format
analog continuous data
digital discreet pieces of data; takes less space; breaks between data
Two's Complement used to add and store negative integers
overflow a situation that occurs when a calculation in a computer results in a number too big for the allowable bits
integers whole numbers, including zeroes and negatives
floating point numbers numbers with decimals
radix point "decimal" point for all bases
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) text that matches up numerical values with western language; 0-127 characters
Extended ASCII Table 256 characters; includes more detailed characters
Unicode 65,536 characters; includes characters for languages such as Chinese and Japanese; international; first 256 characters same as Extended ASCII
compression taking up less space; used with data
lossless when you decompress it you don't lose anything
lossy when you decompress it you will lose something; compresses it smaller
keyword encoding frequently used words are replaced with a single character
run-length encoding capitalizes on situations involving the repetition of a single character
Huffman encoding uses variable-length bit strings to represent each character
digitize the process of analog to digital
sampling digitizes audio
.wav audio; compressed or not; older, used for windows; compression: small
.aiff audio; older; Mac; low compression
.mp3 audio; cross-platform; high compression; lossy and lossless
photoreceptors distinguish between 3 primary colors
pixels one tiny fraction of an image
resolution the number of pixels being stored or displayed
raster-graphics breaking down an image into pixels
.bmp image; Bitmap File; pretty common; not compressed; pixel by pixel file
.gif image; Graphics Interchange Format; usually limits color palate; reduces storage; compressed; good format for Internet images
.jpeg image; compressed but much higher quality; averages pixels together; format you use for photographic quality
.png Portable Network Graphics; highly compressed; more colors and compression than gif; good for small index images
logic gate building blocks for circuits; computer components that take in one or more electrical signal and produce one electrical output signal; made of transistors
transistors act as a wire (conducting electricity) or as a resistor (blocking electricity) depending on the voltage of the signal; act like a switch; made up of semiconductor material
circuits a combination of logic gates
circuit equivalence when two circuits have the same set of outputs for the same inputs
half-adder adds up two binary bits
full-adder adds 3 bits; 5 gates
multiplexor (MUX) chooses a path based on an input
integrated circuit (IC) full name for a chip; a bunch of gates tied together
solder take hot metal/allow; to permanently secure chip to board
Small Scale Integration (SSI) 1-10 gates (MUX)
Medium Scale Integration (MSI) 10-100 gates
Large Scale Integration (LSI) 100-100,000 gates
Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) 100,000+ gates
Control Unit controls what happens in the computer; directs the slow of everything
ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit
computer architecture the design/makeup of a computer
von Neumann Architecture data and instructions can be stored in the same place
registers quick access; small amounts of memory
buses wires connecting all the circuits; in the motherboard
Central Processing Unit (CPU) most important IC of computer; brain of computer; usually 2 inch square chip mounted on motherboard along with power control and RAM
Control Unit coordinates the computer's activities; runs the fetch-execute cycle
Arithmetic Logic Unit performs mathematical and logical operations
registers storage cells for temporary storage of data and instructions; faster than accessing RAM
Main Bus wires carrying signals
dual processor 2 IC's on a single chip
microprocessor CPU found in smaller devices
Graphics Processor Unit (GPU) separate from CPU games and graphics software; send some commands to GPU to control the screen without tying up the CPU
KB 1,000 bytes
MB 1,000,000 bytes
GB 10^9 bytes
TB 10^12 bytes
RAM outside of CPU; stores data and instructions running but not being executed at the moment
registers inside CPU; store instructions and data currently being processed; faster than RAM
cache inside CPU; small amount of memory stores a copy of data and instructions being executed to save time sending/retrieving info to/from RAM
Hard Disk Drive (HDD) spinning magnetic disk; data stored in sectors and tracks access speeds slow down speed of computer; more susceptible to damage; can be wiped by large magnet
Soft State Drive (SSD) electronic storage; each data cell has an address; faster access speed; can be damaged by power outage
CD/DVD optical disk; stored and read by laser; data stored in sectors and tracks; speed listed as nX, meaning data transfer is n times faster than a video DVD player
Flash Drive electrical storage; stable without external power for years; no moving parts=high speed data transfer
SD Card secure digital memory card; electronic storage; small; often used for photos, music, phones, etc.
Universal Serial Bus (USB) generation 1, 2, 3
High Def Multimedia Interface (HDMI) usually for audio/visual devices
Video Graphics Adaptor (VGA) connects to display or projector
Ethernet connects to router for modern networking
firewire very fast data transfer; high performance devices
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) most monitors are this
Light Emitting Diode (LED) cooler and longer lasting than fluorescent lighting
Moore's Law a projection that the number of circuits that can be placed on a single integrated circuit will double each year
planned obsolescence changing the design of a product to increase sales without really improving it
seek time time it takes for the arm to move over the right track on a disk
latency how long it takes the disk to rotate to the right sector
access time sum of seek time and latency
transfer rate how long it takes to get from secondary storage to RAM
Random Access Memory (RAM) primary memory; electronic; no moving parts
volatile cleared at shutdown
Read Only Memory (ROM) hardwired/burned at creation; non-volatile
parallel computing using multiple processors to increase capacity and/or decrease speed; must have some shared access to programs and/or memory
synchronous processing multiple processors performing the same task on different data sets at the same time
pipeline processing multiple processors performing different tasks on the same data set in succession OR multiple processors performing different tasks on different parts of the same data at the same time
information systems software to organize, analyze and present data
data raw facts
information data that has been organized or analyzed
spreadsheets an application that enables data analysis based on formulas that define relationships among the data
dynamic (spreadsheet) changes to the data are reflected in the calculations immediately
circular reference a formula in one cell references another cell that contains a formula based on the value of the first cell; creates a situation that cannot be resolved
database a structured set of data
Database Management Systems (DBMS) manages data
physical database files that contain the data
database schema structure of the data
database engine program allowing user to enter, search, filter and retrieve the data
Structured Query Language (SQL) database programming language for managing databases
digital libraries collections of digital objects that include text, visual, audio and video files
digital archive primary sources of information rather than the secondary sources found in a library; easily reproducible and may have been reduced from elsewhere
metadata data to provide information about other data
search engines use metadata; not necessarily the same thing as a web browser
spider database that does the searching
e-Commerce applications that allow the purchase and sale of goods and services via the World Wide Web
data mining looking for patterns in static data collections called data warehouses; seeks to identify previously unknown patterns
Class Description characterizes similar groups of data
Class Discrimination identifies properties that divide groups of data
Cluster Analysis looks for new ways to group data
Association Analysis looks for links between groups
Outlier Analysis looks for data pieces that don't comply with the group norm; used for error and fraud detection
Open Access online research materials that are free of tolls and copyright restrictions
Creative Commons used when an author wants to give people the right to share, use and build work they created
US Privacy Act of 1974 required government agencies to publish notice of their databases in the Federal Register to allow citizens to access and correct information
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) regulates the use and disclosure of protected health information by health insurers and medical service providers
The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act governs access of educational information and records; gives parents access to students' education records until they are 18; gives students 18+ enrolled in any post-secondary institution right of privacy
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (1978) established FISA Court
FISA Court oversees surveillance warrants against foreign spies within the US
artificial intelligence the study/implementation of computer systems that model and apply the intelligence of the human mind
Turing Test test to see if something is intelligent
Knowledge Representation how we simulate the decision making process; uses different techniques to represent knowledge; semantic networks
semantic networks mindmap; used to make decisions
search trees a structure that represents all of the possible consequences of a decision
Expert Systems computer systems that embody the knowledge of human experts in a specific field; asks user questions based on set of programmed rules and ultimately renders a decision; uses interference engine to determine how rules are followed
Neural Networks computer systems that mimic the processing of the human brain; often used in decision making, optical character/image recognition, and explosive detection; more it runs, more it produces accurate results
Natural Language Processing computer systems that process human language through voice recognition, comprehension and synthesis; breaks sounds into units called phonemes and requires database of phonetics for words
Robotics autonomous, mobile robots that require Artificial Intelligence to interact with their surroundings
models creating a representation of a complex system and altering that model to observe the results
virtual reality (VR) computer technologies that generate realistic images, sounds and other sensations that replicate an environment and enables the user to interact with this space
augmented reality (AR) superimposes a computer generated environment not he user's view of the real world
2-D Graphics Software converts 2-D shapes into pixel data to produce an image that can be manipulated or animated
Image Processing Software analyzes pixels in an image to identify patterns or even understand images
polygonal mesh a set of polygons that cover the surface of the object
particle system particles are assigned behavioral formulas to make them move to form a shape
rendering the scene determining how the objects in a scene graph would appear when projected onto a 2-D projection plane
clipping the process of slicing off the objects that are not in the view volume
scan conversion/rasterization process of assigning patches on remaining scene graph to pixels on 2-D image by passing straight lines from camera to objects
Hidden Surface Removal process of discarding points on the scene that are blocked by other points
animation displaying a sequence of 2-D images in rapid succession
storyboard sequence of 2-D images that tell the story
Operating System (OS) the main component of the system software and it has two main jobs
Utility Software programs that extend or customize the OS
User Interface how the user opens and storms programs and documents
Graphical User Interface icons and windows
Kernel coordinates all of the computer's activities
Process Management scheduling the use of the CPU
Memory Management allocates space within RAM for programs and data; OS must move parts of programs in and out of RAM as needed
paging moving parts of programs in and out of RAM as needed
File Management coordinates the use of mass storage, the location of files, accessibility of files, storing new files
File Organization allows users to organize files in folders or directories; each file has a directory path
Device Driver Communication communicates with peripheral devices
bootstrapping when the computer is turned on, all or part of the OS is transferred from mass storage to main memory; boot loader is stored in ROM and tells the computer to transfer OS to RAM and run it when it is turned on
algorithm an ordered set of executable sets that solve a problem or complete a task
pseudocode generic coding without syntax rules
syntax specific commands, punctuation, arguments etc.
variable name of a memory location used to store a value
input when you get a value from the user it must be assigned to a variable
output value of variable or specific string
nesting putting decision statements inside other decision statements
computer network two or more computers connected via communication devices and media
Internet a collection of networks that link billions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals
NPL British network; nationwide; established in 1965
ARPANET US network; nationwide; established in 1969
CYCLADES French network; nationwide; established in 1973
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) oversees research and sets standards and guidelines
Internet 2 (I2) develops and tests advanced Internet technologies
Internet Service Provider (ISP) company that provides access to the Internet to users or subscribers of its service
Tier 1 ISP very high capacity WANs operated by very large telecom companies
Tier 2 ISP regional WANs operated by large telecom companies
Local Access ISP smaller WANs
dial-up access home or business; computer, modem, regular telephone line
high speed access home or business; digital subscriber line; cable modem
digital subscriber line (DSL) provides high speed Internet connections over regular copper telephone line
cable modem provides high speed Internet connections through cable television network
World Wide Web an information space of the Internet where electronic documents are identified by URL, interlinked by hyperlinks
URL name of file that is website
HTML language of website
web browser addition to ISP; software application that allows you to access and view web pages via their URL
search engine software program that searches for information on the Web; maintains information by running an algorithm on a web crawler
web crawler a bot that constantly browses web sites to update an index
Personal Area Network (PAN)
Local Area Network (LAN) a single building/campus
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) a community/city
Wide Area Network (WAN) cities/countries
star topology computers are connected to a central computer; all communications must go through a central computer; the basis for most Wifi networks
bus topology all computers on the network can communicate with each other; Ethernet networks use this
hub small pus with several inputs connecting computers in a small area to the bus network
repeater device to connect two bus networks; amplifies signals
bridge device to connect two bus networks; any signals intended for a computer on the origin side is returned
switch like a bridge but it connects more than 2 bus networks
router a computer for connecting incompatible networks
twisted-pair wire regular phone lines; simplest and slowest
coaxial cable standard cable lines; copper wires surrounded by thick insulation
fiber optics fast, accurate, durable; electrons translated into light pulses
Client/Server Model clients make requests; device on network is considered a server and other networks are considered clients; servers satisfy the requests of clients
Peer to Peer (P2P) Model devices on network provide service to and receive services from each other; collaboration
distributed system type of network communication; programs that are executed on different computers
Cluster Computing many independent computers work together to provide computating services comparable to a larger computer
Grid Computer members of the grid volunteer their computing power to the grid while not in use for themselves
Cloud Computing generally owned; huge pools of shared computers can be allocated for use by clients as needed
redundancy additional instances of network devices, equipment and communications mediums are installed within the network infrastructure to ensure network availability in case a device fails or is unavailable
latency amount of time a signal takes to traverse a network
sensor network devices distributed throughout a network to monitor environmental conditions like temperature, sound, pressure, etc.
Network Interface Cards (NICs) expansion card to connect to Ethernet
Bluetooth a type of short range wireless interconnection
bandwidth bit-rate of available information capacity
protocols rules that govern electronic communication
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) used for most emails
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) used for most web pages
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) encrypted; supposed to be more secure
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) sets up and monitors transmission; manages sending and receiving of packets; makes sure message is divided up properly and addresses with origin and destination IP addresses when sent
Internet Protocol (IP) handles transmission of data on the Internet; manages how data travels on the Internet
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) allocates blocks of IP addresses to 5 regional RIRs that distribute the addresses to ISPs within their systems
IPv4 current 32-bit IP address format; allows for roughly 4 billion unique addresses
IPv6 multi-year transition to 128-bit IP address format happening right now; 340 undecillion unique addresses
packet routing most messages are too large to travel over the Internet; broken into smaller units called packets
routers devices on Internet to keep packets moving; chooses best path to take at each intersection
scalable work with large and small numbers
redundant have repeated elements
fault tolerance because of redundancy, networks won't collapse when part of it breaks down
web page electronic document; must follow HTTP protocol
World Wide Web collection of web pages
website collection of related web pages
hyperlinks built-in connections to other documents
Domain Name System (DNS) associates text names with device IP addresses
DNS Servers connect to Internet set up in a hierarchy to store and look up IP addresses
DNS Spoofing when a hacker breaks into a DNS server and assigns the wrong IP address to a domain name; sends web page users to an imposter website where they are vulnerable
registrars agencies assigned by ICANN
Top Level Domain (TLD) suffix on the end of domain name
Sub Domains user that registers a domain name can extend that name to obtain identifiers for items that belong to that domain
Uniform Resource Locator (URL) unique address for a web page; includes protocol, domain name, and file directory path and document
web cookies stored on browser with information that identifies you; sent to web page so that it will remember you
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) programming language used to create documents to be displayed on the Web
tags markup codes
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) style definitions used in HTML
Java Applets programs embedded into an HTML document; executed by the browser
Java Scriplets small pieces of executable code intertwined with traditional HTML content that are executed by the computer hosting the web page
information security the protection of data from being leaked
confidentiality prevents your personal data from being leaked
Data integrity makes sure only certain people/software have access to change data
malware malicious software transferred to/executed on a computer
virus inserts itself into existing programs to corrupt data
worms autonomous program forwards itself to other computers
Trojan Horses enters disguised as harmless program
spyware/sniffing software collects info about computer activities and reports back to instigator
phishing obtaining info from victim and pretending to be benign
Denial of Service (DoS) overloads a computer with messages to distort activity; to hack a website
spoofing a computer pretending to be another computing by faking its IP address
spam unwanted junk email; not generally malicious
firewall network software that blocks dangerous/inappropriate messages from going in or out
proxy server limits access; software between client and server shielding the client from harmful actions of the server
antivirus software software to detect and remove viruses and/or spyware
spam filter firewall intended to block unwanted mail; learns to identify spam by user's reactions
passwords controls access to network but not the data once it leaves the network
biometrics/smart cards fingerprints; retina scans; cards with chips/stripes
encryption coding and decoding messages so that if they are intercepted they cannot be interpreted
Symmetric Encryption sender and receiver have to have same encryption code
public key encryption public and private keys
digital certificates used by HTTPS to ensure website downloading is actually a secure website
CAPTCHA software to verify that a web form is submitted by a human not a machine
intellectual property original work to which one has the rights and for which one may apply for a patent, copyright or trademark
copyright the exclusive legal right to print, publish, sell etc. the expression of an idea and authorize others to do the same
patent for inventions
trademark for identifiers like company names and logos
World Intellectual Property Organization an agency of the United Nations to promote and protect intellectual property
Digital Millenium Copyright Act (DMCA) a 1998 US copyright law intended to protect the rights of both the copyright owners and consumers which as usually in conflict
Creatie Commons License license that enables free distribution of copyrighted work; owner sets up rules for sharing of and building upon their work; can apply to any copyrighted material
Open Source Software license for software that makes the source code available for others to study, change and distribute of any purpose; encourages a collaborative environment
Crowd Sourcing getting input or information from a large number of people; paid or unpaid
Citizen Science when professional scientists and people from the general public collaborate on specific studies
net neutrality the principle that Internet service providers and governments regulating the Internet should treat all data on the Internet the same, not discriminating or charging differentially