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Computer Networks

computer network two or more computers connected via communication devices and media
Internet a collection of networks that link billions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals
NPL British network
ARPANET US network
CYCLADES French network
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) oversees research and sets standards and guidelines
Internet 2 (I2) develops and tests advanced Internet technologies
Internet Service Provider (ISP) company that provides access to the Internet to users or subscribers of its service
Tier 1 very high capacity WANs operated by very large telecom companies
Tier 2 regional WANs operated by large telecom companies
Local Access ISPs smaller WANs
dial-up access for connecting to the Internet; home or business; computer, modem regular telephone line
high speed access for connecting to the Internet; home or business; digital subscriber line
World Wide Web an information space of the Internet where electronic documents are identified by URL and interlinked by hyperlinks
web browser addition to ISP; software application that allows you to access and view web pages via their URL
search engine software program that searches for information on the web
web crawler a bot that constantly browses web sites to update an index
Personal Area Network (PAN) phone and headset size network
Local Area Network (LAN) a single building/campus network
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) a community/city network
Wide Area Network (WAN) cities/countries network
star topology computers are connected to a central computer; all communications must go through the central computer; basis for most Wifi networks
bus topology all computers on the network can communicate with each other; Ethernet networks use this
hub small bus with several inputs connecting computers in a small area to the bus network
repeater device to connect two bus networks; amplifies signals
bridge device to connect two bus networks; any signals intended for a computer on the origin side are returned; only signals mean too r computer on the other side of the bridge are passed through; more efficient than repeater for big networks
switch like a bridge but it connects more than 2 bus networks
router a computer for connecting incompatible networks
twisted-pair wire regular phone lines; simplest and slowest
coaxial cable standard cable lines; copper wires surrounded by thick insulation
fiber optics fast, accurate, durable; electrons translated into light pulses; insanely expensive
Client/Server Model clients make requests; device on network is considered a server and other networks are considered clients; servers satisfy the requests of clients
Peer to Peer (P2P) Model devices on network provide service to and receive services from each other
distributed systems type of network communication; programs that are executed on different computers
Cluster Computing many independent computers work together to provide computating services comparable to a larger coputer
Grid Computer members of grid volunteer their computing power to the grid while not in use for themselves
Cloud Computing generally owned; huge pools of shared computers can be allocated for use by clients as needed
redundancy additional instances of network devices, equipment, and communications mediums are installed within the network infrastructure to ensure the network availability in case a device fails or is unavailable
latency amount of time a signal takes to traverse a network
sensor network devices distributed throughout a network to monitor environmental conditions like temperature, pressure, sound, etc.
Network Interface Cards (NICs) expansion card to connect to Ethernet
Bluetooth a type of short range wireless interconnection
bandwidth bit-rate of available information capacity
Internet Protocol (IP) manages how data travels on the Internet
IPv4 current 32 bit IP address format; allows for roughly 4 billion unique addresses
IPv6 multi-year transition to 128-bit IP address format happening right now
routers devices on Internet to keep packets moving; chooses best path to take at each intersection
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
scalable work with small and large networks
redundant have repeated elements
fault tolerant because of redundancy, networks won't collapse when part of it breaks down
web page electronic document; must follow HTTP protocol
World Wide Web collection of web pages
website collection of related web pages
hyperlinks built-in connections to other documents
Domain Name System (DNS) associates text names with device IP addresses
DNS Servers connect to Internet setup in a hierarchy to store and look up IP addresses
DNS spoofing when a hacker breaks into a DNS server and assigns the wrong IP address to a domain name; sends web page users to an imposter website when they are vulnerable
registrars agencies assigned by ICANN
Top Level Domain (TLD) suffix ont he end of a domain name
sub domains user that registers a domain name can extend that name to obtain identifiers for items that belong to that domain
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) programming language used to created documents to be displayed on the web
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) style definitions used in HTML
Java Applets programs embedded into an HTML document
Java Server Pages (JSP) small pieces of executable code intertwined with traditional HTML content that are executed by the computer hosting the web page
information security the protection of data (information)
confidentiality prevents your personal data from being leaked
data integrity makes sure only certain people/software have access to change data
malware malicious software transferred to/executed on a computer
virus inserts itself into existing programs to corrupt data
worms autonomous program forwards itself to other computers
Trojan Horses enters disguised as harmless program
spyware/sniffing software collections info about computer activities and reports back to instigator
phishing obtaining into from victim and pretending to be benign
Denial of Service (DoS) overloads a computer with messages to distort activity
spoofing a computer pretending to be another computer by faking its IP address
spam unwanted junk email; not generally malicious
firewall network software that blocks dangerous/inappropriate messages from going in or out
proxy server limits access; software between client and server shielding client from harmful actions of the server
antivirus software software to detect and remove viruses and/or spyware
spam filter firewall intended to block unwanted mail; learns to identify spam by users reactions
passwords controls access to network but not data once it leaves the network
encryption coding and decoding messages so that if they are intercepted they cannot be interpreted
symmetric encryption sender and receiver have to have same encryption code
public key encryption public and private keys; public= always to send; private = opens
digital certificates used by to ensure website downloading is actually a secure website
CAPTCHA software to verify that a web form is submitted by a human not a machine
intellectual property original work to which one has the rights and for which one may apply for a patent, copyright or trademark
copyright the exclusive legal right to print, publish, sell, etc. the expression of an idea and authorize others to do the same
patent for inventions
trademark for identifiers like company names and logos
World Intellectual Property Organization an agency of the United Nations to promote and protect intellectual property
Digital Millenium Copyright Act (DMCA) a 1998 US copyright law intended to protect the rights of both the copyright owners and consumers which are usually in conflict
Creative Commons License license that enables free distribution of copyrighted work; owner sets up rules for the sharing of and building upon their work
Open Source Software license for software that makes the source code available for others to study, change, and distribute for any purpose; encourages a collaborative environment
Crowd Sourcing getting input or information from a large number of people, paid or unpaid
Citizen Science when professional scientists and people from the general public collaborate on specific studies
net neutrality the principle that Internet service providers and governments regulating the Internet should treat all data on the Internet the same, not discriminating or charging differentially