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SCHC Blood Banking I

QuestionAnswer
Blood type is an example of what kind of inheritance? Codominant.
What is the diploid number for humans? 43
What are the phases of mitosis? Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.
What is an amorph? Give an example. An amorph is a silent gene, like the O blood type.
What number of chromosomes are carried by the gametes? Haploid.
What does meiosis produce? gametes
How many daughter cells arise from meiosis? four
Define homozygous. two identical alleles inherited.
Genotype is? The actual sequence of DNA inherited.
Phenotype is? The expression of the genotype.
What does cis mean when describing the loaction of the alelle? Trans? Cis mean that the allele is on the same chromosome. Trans means it is on the opposite chromosome.
What is Landsteiner's rule? You do not have the antibody to the antigen that you possess but you have antibodies to the antigen you lack.
What fluid does forward typing use? What is it testing for? Forward typing uses the RBC and tests for antigens.
What portion of the blood is used for reverse typing? Serum and detects the antibodies.
What do we mean when we say the phenotype of the blood? The demonstrable antigens present on the RBC
What is the rarest blood type in the ABO system? AB
WHat is the most common blood type? O
What blood type has slightly higher frequency in blacks than in whites? B
What blood type has a higher frequency in whites vs. blacks? A
What does the A and B genes code for? glycosyltransferases
WHere is the ABO precursor locus? chromosome 9 (9q34)
What does the A gene encode for as far as the sugar and the enzyme? galactosaminyl transferase (enz) and N-acetylgalactosamine
What does the B gene encode for as far as sugar and enzymes? galactosyl transferase (enz) and D-galactose
What does the H and Se gene encode for? fucosyl transferase and L-Fucose
Which chromosome has the H and Se gene? Chromosome 19.
What substances can secretors secrete? H, A, B, Leb, Lea
Rank from highest to lowest the blood types based on the amount of H secreted. O>A2>B>A2B>A1>A1B>Bombay (Ohh)
What type of blood can you give to a bombay person? Bombay blood only.
How can you test for H? Use the Ulex europaeus (anti-H). If agglutinates then they are secreting H.
What type of antibodies are produced from ABO? naturally occurring.
At what age do babies start producing anitbodies of their own? Usually between 3 and 6 months
Which immunoglobulins is released by A or B individuals? IgM
What immunoglobulin is produced by type O individuals? IgG
A1 is very potent. What does this mean regarding the H substance? That most of it is used up by the A1.
What blood type has an increased chance of causing HDN? Type O
What is acquired A syndrome associated with? Septicemic infections.
What does it mean when a child has AB cis genes? That they inherited the A and B gene from one parent (one chromosome) and the O gene from the other parent. They have ABO blood type.
What can cause unexpected results with the red cell testing? Rouleaux, antibody coated cells, mixed field agglutination, subgroups of A or B, acquired A or B (gram- bacterial infections)
When can serum give unexpected results? high concentration of fibrinogen, proteins, or globulin, Weakened or absent antibodies (immune deficient), IV solutions, unexpected allo or autoantibodies.
What are possible tech errors that could occur? incorrect id of specimen, incorrect reading of the results, contamination, overcentrifugation, failure to ID hemolysis as a positive reaction, dirty glassware, inappropriate cell to serum ratio
What portion of the antibody does the AHG attach? Fc portion
What temperature is IgG reactive at? 37 C
What temperature is IgM reactive at? 22-24 C
During a primary immune response which immunoglobulin responds first? IgM
During a secondary immune response which immunoglobulin has the highest peak? IgG
Which immunoglobulin has the highest concentration in the serum? IgG
Which immunoglobulin class is the most clinically significant? IgG
What portion of the blood does IAT test? The serum
What portion of the blood does DAT test? RBC
Why is it important to reduce the Zeta potential in the IAT? It enhances the ab uptake.
Created by: 25109943