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Ch. 20 Terms

TermDefinition
Apple menu In OS X, the menu that appears when the user clicks the Apple icon in the upper-left corner of the screen.
application virtualization Using this virtualization, a virtual environment is created in memory for an application to virtually install itself.
Application Virtualization (App-V) Software by Microsoft used for application virtualization.
apt-get A Linux and OS X command to install and remove software packages and install OS updates.
Bash shell The default shell used by the terminal for many distributions of Linux.
Boot CAMP A utility in OS X that allows you to install and run Windows on a Mac computer
client-side desktop virtualization Using this virtualization, software installed on a desktop or laptop manages virtual machines used by the local user.
client-side virtualization Using this virtualization, a personal computer provides multiple virtual environments for applications.
clone In Linux and OS X, an image of the entire partition on which the OS is installed.
Dashboard In OS X, a screen that contains widgets, such as a calendar, a calculator, a clock, and a weather report.
dd A Linux and OS X command to copy and convert files, directories, partitions, and entire DVDs or hard drives. You must be logged in as a superuser to use the command.
DMG filE In Mac OS X, a disk image file similar to WIM or ISO files in Windows.
dock A bar that appears by default at the bottom of the screen and contains program icons and shortcuts to files and folders.
dumb terminal A client computer that does not have an operating system and merely provides an interface between the user and the server.
dump In Linux, a collection of data that is copied to a backup media.
emulator A virtual machine that emulates hardware, such as the hardware buttons on a Smartphone.
ext3 The Linux file system that was the first to support journaling, which is a technique that tracks and stores changes to the hard drive and helps prevent file system corruption.
ext4 The current Linux file system, which replaced the ext3 file system. Stands for "fourth extended file system.
fat client A regular desktop computer or laptop that is sometimes used as a client by a virtualization server. Also called fat client.
Finder An app embedded in Mac OS X that functions similar to File Explorer in Windows; use it to find and access files and applications in OS X.
force quit In OS X, to abruptly end an app without allowing the app to go through its close process.
gestures In OS X, finger movements on a touch screen or the trackpad of a Mac computer.
grep A Linux and OS X command to search for and display a specific pattern of characters in a file or in multiple files.
GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader The current Linux boot loader, which can handle dual boots with another OS installed on the system.
hardware-assisted virtualization A feature of a processor whereby it can provide enhanced support for hypervisor software to run virtual machines on a system.
hypervisor Software that creates and manages virtual machines on a server or on a local computer.
ifconfig A Linux and OS X command similar to the Windows ipconfig command that displays details about network interfaces and can enable and disable an interface.
iwconfig A Linux and OS X command similar to ifconfig, but applies only to wireless networks. Use it to display information about a wireless interface and configure a wireless adapter
kernel panic A Linux or OS X error from which it cannot recover, similar to a blue screen of death in Windows.
Keychain In OS X, a built-in password manager utility.
Launchpad In OS X, the screen that shows all apps installed on the computer, similar to the Windows 8 Start screen.
LILO (LInux boot LOader) The current Linux boot loader, which can handle dual boots with another OS installed on the system.
Linux An OS based on UNIX that was created by Linus Torvalds of Finland. Basic versions of this OS are open source, and all the underlying programming instructions are freely distributed.
live CD In Linux, a CD, DVD, or flash drive that can boot up a live version of Linux, complete with Internet access and all the tools you normally have available in a hard drive installation of Linux, but without installing the OS on the hard drive.
local snapshot In OS X, the temporary backups that Time Machine creates when the Mac is not connected to the backup media. When the media is later available, local snapshots are copied to the media.
login item In OS X, programs that are automatically launched after a user logs in. Login items are managed in the Users & Groups utility in System Preferences.
Mission Control In OS X, a utility and screen that gives an overview of all open windows and thumbnails of the Dashboard and desktops.
multiple desktops A feature of Mission Control in OS X, where several desktop screens, each with its own collection of open windows, are available to the user.
NetBoot A technology that allows a Mac to boot from the network and then install OS X on the machine from a clone DMG file stored on the server.
OS X The latest version of the proprietary operating system only available for Macintosh computers by Apple Inc. (apple.com). OS X was originally based on UNIX.
presentation virtualization Using this virtualization, a remote application running on a server is controlled by a local computer.
Recovery System In OS X, a lean operating system that boots from a hidden volume on the OS X startup disk and is used to troubleshoot OS X when startup errors occur.
Remote Disc A feature of OS X that gives other computers on the network access to the Mac's optical drive.
root account In Linux and OS X, the account that gives the user access to all the functions of the OS; the principal user account.
Screen Sharing In OS X, a utility to remotely view and control a Mac and is similar to Remote Assistance in Windows.
secondary click In OS X, right-click the mouse or tap the lower-right corner of the trackpad on a Mac laptop.
server-side virualization Using this virtualization, a server provides a virtual desktop or application for users on multiple client machines.
shel prompt In Linux and OS X, the command prompt in the terminal
Space In OS X, one desktop screen is called a Space. Multiple desktops or Spaces can be open and available to users.
Spotlight In OS X, the search app that can be configured to search the local computer, Wikipedia, iTunes, the Maps app, the web, and more.
startup disk In OS X, the entire volume on which OS X is installed.
startup item In OS X, programs that automatically launch at startup.
su A Linux and OS X command to open a new terminal shell for a different user account. Stands for "substitute user."
sudo A Linux and OS X command to execute another command as a superuser when logged in as a normal user with an account that has the right to use root commands. Stands for "substitute user to do the command."
superuser Refers to a Linux or Mac OS X user who is logged in to the root account.
System Prefrences In OS X, a utility to customize the OS X interface and is available on the Apple menu.
terminal In Linux and OS X, the command-line interface.
thick client A regular desktop computer or laptop that is sometimes used as a client by a virtualization server. Also called fat client.
thin client A computer that has an operating system, but has little computing power and might only need to support a browser used to communicate with a virtualization server.
Time Machine In OS X, a built-in backup utility that can be configured to automatically back up user-created data, applications, and system files onto an external hard drive attached either directly to the computer or through the local network.
Type 1 hypervisor Software to manage virtual machines that is installed before any operating system is installed.
Type 2 hypervisor Software to manage virtual machines that is installed as an application in an operating system.
ultra-thin client A client computer that does not have an operating system and merely provides an interface between the user and the server.
vi editor A Linux and OS X text editor that works in command mode (to enter commands) or in insert mode (to edit text).
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) A presentation of a virtual desktop made to a client computer by a server that is serving up a virtual machine.
virtual machine manager (VMM) Software that creates and manages virtual machines on a server or on a local computer.
virtualization When one physical machine hosts multiple activities that are normally done on multiple machines.
zero client A client computer that does not have an operating system and merely provides an interface between the user and the server.
Created by: drewtang40