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what are the 4 DNA nucleotides A, C, T, G
which nucleotides pair together? A pairs with T, C pairs with G
What is the DNA backbone made of? made of sugar and phosphate groups. nucleotides join togheter with hydrogen bonds.
DNA is replicated when? S-phase
What is the model of DNA replication? is Semi-Conservative model.
What is the rate of replication in eukaryotic cells? 50 nt/s
What enezyme adds nucleotides to replicaing DNA DNA ploymerase performs several functions including adding nucleotides to replicating DNA
How big is the human genome 3.9 billion nucletides (bases)
Transcription occurs where nucleus
Transcription is what the transfer of information from DNA to mRNA, mRNA then leaves the nuclear pore and is revieved by ribosome
function of mRna ribosomes translates mRNA into a string of amino acid monomers called polypeptide chain
what is tRNA resp. for bringing the correct amino acids to the ribosome as written codons on the mRNA
What is a codon? 3 nucletide word that translated in the ribosome into amino acid
What is a base (nucleotide) insertion/ deletion? a base insertion/ deletion is the addition or subtraction of a nucleotide
What is a base subsitution? is change of a single nucleotide
What are the results of these mutations? mutation could be beneficial, neutral or negative. If codon translates into the same amino acid then there is no effect.
What type of mutation causes sickle cell? a base subsitution
Somatic cell nucleur trasnfer Diploid nuclues is removed from somatic cell and transferred into eff in which eggs haploid necleus was removed.
Terapeutic cloning used to create specific lines of cells that may ultimately be used for tissues or oragans
Reproductive cloning leads to offspring
What most likely caused Dolly to die prematurely DNA contained within the somatic cell nucleus was used in cloning process likely carried a lot of mutations.
Signal Trasduction Pathway gp. of cellular components and chemicals that participate in the transmission of info.
Signal Trasduction exp. substate binding to a receptor embedded on the plasma membrane of the cell.
What are proto-oncogenes is a gene necessary for normal cell activity that, when mutated, leads to oncogene
What is an oncogene gene that could lead to the growth of a tumor
ex. of proto oncogene? ras, which codes for a relaty protein in a signal transdution pathway
Tumor suppressor? inhibits cellular proliferation.
The location of a gene on a chromosome is referred to as a loci
which of the following is a lethal dominant disorder with symptons that dont appear till middle age? Huntington's disease
What % of females eggs carry an x chromosome? 100%
when a single gene affects many phenotypic characteristics, this is referred to as? pleiotropy
for a sex-linked recessive disorder, if a mother is carrier and the father is normal, what is the probablity that they will have a son with the recessive disease? 25%
which of the following is a sex-linked disorder hemophilia
Many clonded animales are sub. to disease and pre mature aging because the donor nucleus probably already has suffered damage to the DNA true
Once a donor nucleus has been implanted into an eff, the egg is subjected to an electrical shock to stimulate cellular division true
adult stem cells from bone marrow can differentiate into any type of somaic cell false
which of the following is a vector used in human gene therapy virus
once a plasmid has been removed from bacteria, what would you use to cut it open restriction enzyme
once a plasmic has been cut open, what wouldbe used to glue a gene of intrest in? ligase
what technique is used to sep. DNA into visable bands? gel electrophorsis
in PCR, in which step does DNA sep into 2 stands denature
the human gene is apox. how big 2.9 billion
All DNA in human genome is packaged as genes false
DNA is post. charge false
which of the following is a random evolutionary process genetic drift
darwin was the first person to pose idea of evolution false
which one of the following provides the raw material for evolution to occur mutations
which process can restore genetic variation into population gene flow
when a large population is drastically reduced to a small population due to some catastrophic event, this is referred to as bottlenecking
in fixed species theory, all organisms radiated outward from a single common ancestor false
Created by: Mollie28
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