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Reproductive System3

Duke PA Physiology

QuestionAnswer
What are the early primary follicles? at the beginning, one layer of cells around the egg (granulosa cells)
Is the hypothalamus controlling regulation in the early primary follicle? no
What differentiates a late primary follicle from an early primary follicle? additional layers of cells
What do the theca cells do? produce androgen
What hormone controls production of androgen in theca cells? LH
What do granulosa cells do? convert testosterone to estrogen
What is required to convert testosterone to estrogen? aromatase
What hormone works on granulosa cells? FSH
What is the first layer of cells around the egg? granulosa cells
What is the second layer of cells around the egg? theca cells
When does a female have the highest number of oocytes? before birth
How many oocytes does a female have at birth? 20 million
How many oocytes does a female have at puberty? 400-500 ova
At what point in the cell cycle are oocytes arrested? meiosis - remain dormant until adulthood
What is menopause? when female runs out of eggs
What is atresia? apoptosis of eggs, eggs degenerate and are reabsorbed by the ovary
What happen to the oocyte at ovulation? first meiotic division
What part of the cell cycle occurs at fertilization? second meiotic division
What signal do estrogen and progesterone have on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary? inhibitory
How is early primary follicle growing? GD9
What is early primary follicle producing? estrogen
What happens to granulosa cells as follicle grows? granulosa cells increase
What type of feedback is FSH? positive feedback - making cell sensitive to FSH
What other type of receptors are growing on follicle as it grows? LH
What is the graffian follicle? the chosen ovum to be ovulated
What does the ovum leave when it is ovulated? granulosa cells
What do the leftover granulose cells secrete? progesterone and estrogen
What is the mid-cycle spike? surge of LH and FSH
How many hours from the surge of LH and FSH does ovulation occur? 36 hours
What does the leftover follicle turn into after ovulation? corpus luteum
What does the corpus luteum secrete? progesterone and estrogen
What are the three phases of the ovarian cycle? follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase
How does the circulating estrogen affect the uterus? causes proliferation of the glands of the uterus
What do the glands secrete in the uterus? glycogen
What causes the uterus to grow? estrogen
What causes the secretory phase in the uterus? progesterone
What causes the proliferation phase in the uterus? estrogen
What is the fertilized egg looking for in the endometrium of the uterus? glycogen, it digs into the lining of the uterus
What do you lose in menses? lining of the uterus
What hormone is secreted if fertilization occurs? HCG
What does estrogen cause? expression of the estrogen receptor in the uterus and the breast, as well as progesterone receptors in both tissues
What can unopposed estrogen cause? cancer
What is important in oral contraception? progesterone - so, pill is estrogen/progesterone
Would you ever give unopposed estrogen in a fertile female? no
What does progesterone do? inhibits the expression of estrogen receptors
What is the negative feedback for estrogen? progesterone
How do estrogen and progesterone work? steroid hormone - changing transcription within the cells - effect number of receptors
What is tamoxifen? anti-estrogen receptor
Created by: ges13