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Reproductive System2

Duke PA Physiology

What cells surround the sperm? sertoli cells - sperm develop between these cells
What hormone is in high levels in between sertoli cells? testosterone
What is aromatase? present in sertolia cell,convert testosterone to estradiol
What secretes aromatase? sertoli cells
What is required to initate sperm differentiation? FSH
What hormone is required for maturation of sperm? testosterone
What is the typical number of sperm in semen? 200-400 million/5ml
what number of sperm is consider infertile? 100 million/5ml
What determines how many sperm you can make? sertoli cells
What determines frequency of ejaculation? sertoli cells
Where does maturation and storage occur? epididymus
What is required for capacitation? contact with female oviduct epithelium
What is contained in the head of the sperm DNA cargo
What is the function of the neck in sperm? connector
What is the function of the mid piece in the sperm? energy
What is the function of the principal piece in the sperm? motility
What is responsible for gonadotropin feedback? testosterone
What is responsible for spermatogensis? testosterone
What is responsible for embryonic differentiation? testosterone
What is DHT important for? external virilization and secondary sexual characteristics
What is one of the dominant target sites for DHT? prostate
What is the carrier for DHT and testosterone in the blood? TeBG
TeBG testosterone estrogren binding globulin
How does TeBG act? changes gene expression (activate transcription)
Does TeBG work in males and females? yes
What are anabolic actions? anabolic hormones - promoting increased muscle mass
What effects do anabolic steroids have on the body? large muscles, large prostate, small testes (downregulate FSH, decrease sperm production, sertoli cells shrink)
What do seminal vesicles contribue to semen? fructose rich liquid which is 60% of semen volume
Aromatase converts testosterone to estrogen, resulting in what? enlarged breasts - so men on anabolic steroids take tamoxifen b/c of breast growth
What does the prostate contribute to semen volume? alkaline secretion providing 20% of semen volume
What does the prostate do under influence of DHT? enlarges
What happens to estrogen in men after 50 years of age? increased levels induce expression of testosterone receptors which promote growth (benign prostate growth)
What are the androgen dependent tissues? seminal vesicles, prostate, muscle, facial hair
How long can sperm live in female tract? 2-3 days
What happens to plasma testosterone in the male fetus? spikes in 2nd trimester
What happens to plasma testosterone in the male neonate? spikes shortly after birth
When the lifespane is testosterone extremely low in males? from 1 year to puberty - hypothalamus is super-sensitive during this time
When does testosterone rise after childhood in males? puberty
How long does testosterone stay high in male? all the way through old age
What can damage male reproductive system? trauma
What does testicular cancer cause? decreased proliferation & differentiation of sperm
What happens in decreased proliferation of sertoli cells? subfertility - main determinate of daily sperm production in adult
What is cryptorchidism? failed testicular descent
What two processes are coordinated in the female reproductive system? release of the egg and readiness of the uterus
Why does the ova duct change shapes throughout the monthly cycle? cilia on the ova duct move the ovum down the fallopian tube
Where does fertilization occur? isthmus/ampulla region
Where is the medulla in the ovary? in the center
What are the eggs encased in? follicles
Created by: ges13



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