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Reproductive System1

Duke PA Physiology

When are primordial germ cells in male and female generated? embryogenesis
What are the chromosomal sex determinates? XX and YY
What does expression of the gene SRY on chromosome Y result in? testes (male)
What determines gonadal sex? presence of testes vs ovaries
What is the source of hormone which determines external and internal genitalia? gonad
What is phenotypic sex? external and internal genitalia
What is necessary for maleness? SRY
Is SRY sufficent for maleness? NO
What in addition to SRY is necessary to have a phenotypic male? genes on X chromosome that encode the testosterone receptor
When is male phenotype induced? after 8 weeks of gestation
Sexual differentiation the process by which specific gene products result in a gonad whose products make possible a male or female phenotype
female ducts Mullerian ducts
male ducts Wolferian ducts
What do Sertoli cells secrete? Mullerian inhibitory hormone (MIF)
What does MIF cause? regression of mullerian ducts in male
sexual identity refers to whether indviduals consider themselves male or female
sexual preference refers to whether individual is attracted to the same sex or the opposite sex
sexual functioning refers to whether an individual has testes, ovaries, or gonads with both features
hermaphroditism gonads with both features - retain Wolferian and Mullerian ducts
What responds to levels of circulating steroid hormones? hypothalamus
What does GnRH regulate? FSH and LH
What do FSH and LH do? regulate the development and function of the gonads in male and female
What is GnRH secretion like in male? continuous and pulsatile
What is GnRH secretion like in female? cyclic (monthly pattern)
How sensitive is the hypothalamus in development? super-sensitive
How sensitive is the hypothalamus in adult? feedback
What does inhibin do? inhibits FSH
Does inhibin occur in males or females? both
what causes negative feedback of inhibin? local secretion of testosterone
What is kespeptin? clock that has to be turned on, allows hypothalamus to gain adult rhythms - absence of these genes products prevents puberty
Where are sperm made? testes
Where do sperm go from the testes? epididymis
Where do sperm go from the epididymis? vas deferens
How much sperm is in typical ejaculate? > 100 x 10⁶ sperm per 5 ml
What does the blood-testes barrier do? prevents immune system from accessing developing sperm - protects stem cell population
What do the leydig cells produce? testosterone and DHT
What do the sertoli cells produce? various hormones
What coordinates the production of sperm? hypothalamus
What is the length of the seminiferous tubules? length of 3 football fields
What is the length of epididymis? 6 feet
How many days does it take to go from a spermatogonium to a spermatozoon in the lumen? 64 days
Can sperm swim when they are released from seminiferous tubules? no - they are immobile
How long does it take for a sperm to be mobile? 90 days
What does the epididymis do to the sperm? further differentiate, help them become mobile
When do sperm become good swimmers? in the ova duct - they learn how to swim then - they bury their heads in the ova duct epithelium, searching for an egg
What is the hormone control by sertoli cells? testes-blood barrier, androgen binding protein, inhibin, convert testosterone to estradiol
What is 5 α reductase? critical for making DHT
What is DHT? dihydrotestosterone
Created by: ges13