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SC 2110 Chp 5

Digestive System Study Review

QuestionAnswer
A) TERM DEFINITION
colon consists of ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid sections
gallbladder small sac under the liver; stores bile
cecum first part of the large intestine
anus end of the digestive tract opening to the outside of the body
jejunum second part of the small intestine
esophagus tube connecting the throat to the stomach
ileum third part of the small intestine
liver large organ in the RUQ; secretes bile, stores sugar, produces blood proteins
pharynx throat
sigmoid colon lowest part of the colon
duodenum first part of the small intestine
pancreas organ under the stomach; produces insulin and digestive enzymes
C) MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ANSWER
microscopic projections in the walls of the small intestine: A) papillae B)villi C)rugae B) Villi
salivary gland near the ear: A) submandibular B)sublingual C)parotid C) Parotid
ring of muscle at the end of the stomach: A)pyloric sphincter B)uvula C)lower esophageal sphincter A) Pyloric Sphincter
soft, inner section of a tooth: A) dentin B)enamel C)pulp C) Pulp
chemical that speeds up reactions and helps digest foods: A) triglyceride B)amino C)acidenzyme C) Acidenzyme
pigment released with bile: A)glycogen B)bilirubin C)melena B) Bilirubin
hormone produced by endocrine cells of the pancreas: A) insulin B)amylase C)lipase A) Insulin
rhythm-like contraction of the muscles in the walls of the gastrointestinal tract: A)deglutition B)mastication C)peristalsis C) Peristalsis
breakdown of large fat globules: A) absorption B)emulsification C)anabolism B) Emulsification
pointed, dog-like tooth medial to premolars: A) incisor B)canine C)molar B) Canine
D) COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING ANSWERS
1. Labi/o and cheil/o mean lip
2. Gloss/o and lingu/o mean tongue
3. Or/o and stomat/o mean mouth
4. Dent/i and odont/o mean tooth
5. Lapar/o and celi/o mean abdomen
6. Gluc/o and glyc/o mean sugar
7. Lip/o, steat/o, and adip/o mean fat
8. The suffi xes -iasis and -osis mean abnormal condition
9. Chol/e and bil/i mean gall, bile
10. Resection and -ectomy mean removal, excision
E) BUILD MEDICAL TERMS BASED ON THE GIVEN DEFINITIONS THE CORRECT ANSWER IS FOLLOWED AFTER THE "--"
1. removal of a salivary gland --SIALADENECTOMY 9. incision of the common bile duct --CHOLEDOCHOTOMY
2. pertaining to the throat -- PHARYNGEAL 10. pertaining to teeth and cheek --DENTIBUCCAL
3. hernia of the rectum --RECTOCELE 11. disease condition of the small intestine --ENTEROPATHY
4. enlargement of the liver --HEPATOMEGALY 12. new opening between the common bile duct and the jejunum -- CHOLEDOCHOJEJUNOSTOMY
5. surgical repair of the roof of the mouth --PALATOPLASTY 13. pertaining to surrounding the anus --PERIANAL
6. after meals --POSTPRANDIAL(post cibum—cib/o refers to meals or feeding) 14. new opening from the colon to the outside of the body --COLOSTOMY
7. visual examination of the anal and rectal region --PROCTOSCOPY 15. under the lower jaw --SUBMANDIBULAR
8. study of the cause (of disease) --ETIOLOGY 16. pertaining to the face --FACIAL
F) MATCH THE FOLLOWING DOCTORS OR DENTISTS WITH THEIR SPECIALTIES MATCH THE FOLLOWING WORDS TO: F 1-9 colorectal surgeon, endodontist, gastroenterologist, nephrologist, oral surgeon, orthodontist, periodontist, proctologist, urologist
1. treats disorders of the anus and rectum-- PROCTOLOGIST 6. treats kidney disorders --NEPHROLOGIST
2. operates on the organs of the urinary tract --UROLOGIST 7. diagnoses and treats gastrointestinal disorders --GASTROENTEROLOGIST
3. straightens teeth --ORTHODONTIST 8. treats gum disease --PERIODONTIST
4. performs root canal therapy --ENDODONTIST 9. operates on the intestinal tract --COLORECTAL SURGEON
5. operates on the mouth and teeth --ORAL SURGEON
G) BUILD MEDICAL TERMS TO DESCRIBE THE FOLLOWING INFLAMMATIONS ANSWERS
1. inflammation of the appendix appendicitis
2. inflammation of the large intestine colitis
3. inflammation of the passageway from the throat to the stomach esophagitis
4. inflammation of the membrane surrounding the abdomen peritonitis (note that the e is dropped)
5. inflammation of the gallbladder cholecystitis
6. inflammation of the third part of the small intestine ileitis
7. infammation of the pancreas pancreatitis
8. inflammation of the gums gingivitis
9. inflammation of the liver hepatitis
10. inflammation of the mouth stomatitis
11. inflammation of the salivary gland sialadenitis
12. inflammation of the small and large intestines enterocolitis (when two combining forms for gastrointestinal organs are in a term, use the one that is closest to the mouth first)
H) MATCH THE LISTED TERMS WITH THE MEANINGS THAT FOLLOW MATCH THE FOLLOWING WORDS TO: H 1-12 anastomosis, biliary, defecation, cheilitis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, hyperbilirubinemia, hyperglycemia, mesentery, mucosa, parenteral, portal vein
1. high level of blood sugar--HYPERGLYCEMIA 7. fan-like membrane that connects the small intestine to the abdominal wall --MESENTERY
2. inflammation of the lip --CHEILITIS 8 . large vessel that takes blood to the liver from the intestines --PORTAL VEIN
3. pertaining to administration of medicines and fluid other than by mouth --PARENTERAL 9. new surgical connection between structures or organs -- ANASTOMOSIS
4. mucous membrane --MUCOSA 10. pertaining to bile ducts -- BILIARY
5. expulsion of feces from the body through the anus --DEFECATION 11. process of forming new sugar from proteins and fats -- GLUCONEOGENESIS
6. breakdown (conversion) of starch to sugar --GLYCOGENOLYSIS 12. high levels of a bile pigment in the bloodstream -- HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
I) GIVE THE NAME OF THE FOLLOWING GASTROINTESTINAL SIGN OR SYMPTOMS BASED ON THEIR DESCRIPTIONS.
1. passage of bright red blood from the rectum-- HEMATOCHEZIA 7. gas expelled through the anus-- FLATUS
2. lack of appetite-- ANOREXIA 8. an unpleasant sensation in the stomach and a tendency to vomit-- NAUSEA
3. fat in the feces-- STEALORRHEA 9. loose, watery stools-- DIARRHEA
4. black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood-- MELENA 10. difficulty in passing stools (feces)-- CONSTIPATION
5. abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen-- ASCITES 11. difficulty in swallowing-- DYSPHAGIA
6. rumbling noises produced by gas in the gastrointestinal tract-- BORBORYGMI (BOWEL SOUNDS) 12. gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth-- ERUCTATION
J) WRITE SHORT ANSWERS FOR THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. ANSWERS
1. What is jaundice? yellow-orange coloration of the skin and other tissues (hyperbilirubinemia)
2. List three ways in which a patient can become jaundiced: a. any liver disease (hepatopathy—such as cirrhosis, hepatoma, or hepatitis), so that bilirubin is not processed into bile and cannot be excreted in feces
b. obstruction of bile fl ow, so that bile and bilirubin are not excreted and accumulate in the bloodstream
c. excessive hemolysis leading to overproduction of bilirubin and high levels in the bloodstream
3. What does it mean when a disease is described as idiopathic ? cause is not known
K) SELECT FROM THE LIST OF PATHOLOGIC CONDITIONS TO MAKE DIAGNOSIS DIAGNOSIS LIST: achalasia, anal fistula, aphthous stomatitis, colonic polyps, colorectal cancer, Crohn disease (Crohn ’ s), dental caries, esophageal cancer, herpetic stomatitis, oral leukoplakia pancreatic cancer, periodontal diseasE
1 . Mr. Jones, a smoker and heavy drinker, complained of dysphagia in recent months. A longstanding condition of Barrett esophagus resulted in his malignant condition. esophageal cancer
2. An abnormal tube-like passageway near his anus caused Mr. Rosen’ s proctalgia. His doctor performed surgery to close off the abnormality. anal fistula
3. Carol’ s dentist informed her that the enamel of three teeth was damaged by bacteria-producing acid. dental caries
4. Paola’ s symptoms of chronic diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever led her doctor to suspect that she suffered from an infl ammatory bowel disease affecting the distal portion of her ileum. The doctor prescribed steroid drugs to heal her condition. Crohn disease (Crohn ’ s)
5. Mr. Hart learned that his colonoscopy showed the presence of small benign growths protruding from the mucous membrane of his large intestine. colonic polyps
6. During a routine dental checkup, Dr. Friedman discovered white plaques on Mr. Longo’ s buccal mucosa. He advised Mr. Longo, who was a chronic smoker and heavy drinker, to have these precancerous lesions removed. oral leukoplakia
7. Every time Carl had stressful time at work, he developed a fever blister on his lip, resulting from reactivation of a previous viral infection. Doctor said there was no treatment 100% effective in preventing the reappearance of these lesions. herpetic stomatitis
8. Mr. Green had a biopsy of a neoplastic lesion in his descending colon. The pathology report indicated a malignancy. A partial colectomy was necessary. colorectal cancer
9. Small ulcers (canker sores) appeared on Diane’ s gums. They were painful and annoying. aphthous stomatitis
10. Sharon ’ s failure to floss her teeth and remove dental plaque regularly led to development of gingivitis and pyorrhea. Her dentist advised consulting a specialist who could treat her condition. periodontal disease
11. Imaging tests revealed a tumor in a section of Mr. Smith’ s pancreas. His physician told him that since it had not spread, he could hope for a cure with surgery. He had a pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure), which was successful. pancreatic cancer
12. Mr. Clark complained of pain during swallowing. His physician explained that the pain was caused by a failure of muscles in his lower esophagus to relax during swallowing. achalasia
L) MATCH THE FOLLOWING PATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSES WITH THEIR DEFINITIONS ANSWERS
1. protrusion of the upper part of the stomach through the diaphragm hiatal hernia
2. painful, inflamed intestines caused by bacterial infection dysentery
3. swollen, twisted veins in the rectal region hemorrhoids
4. open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum peptic ulcer
5. loss of peristalsis ileus
6. twisting of the intestine on itself volvulus
7. swollen, varicose veins on the surface of the distal portion of the esophagus esophageal varices
8. abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall diverticulosis
9. chronic inflammation of the colon with destruction of its inner surface ulcerative colitis
10. telescoping of the intestines intussusception
11. inflammation of the liver caused by type A, type B, or type C virus viral hepatitis
12. inflammation of the pancreas pancreatitis
13. calculi in the sac that stores bile cholecystolithiasis (gallstones)
14. chronic degenerative liver disease with scarring resulting from alcoholism or infectious hepatitis cirrhosis
15. gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea or constipation, abdominal pain, bloating) with no evidence of structural abnormalities irritable bowel syndrome
M) COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING TERMS FROM THEIR MEANINGS GIVEN BELOW ANSWERS
1. membrane (peritoneal fold) that holds the intestines together: mes__________ mesentery
2. removal of the gallbladder: ____________ ectomy cholecystectomy
3. black or dark brown, tarry stools containing blood: mel_________ melena
4. high levels of pigment in the blood (jaundice): hyper___________ hyperbilirubinemia
5. pertaining to under the tongue: sub____________ sublingual
6. twisting of the intestine on itself: vol____________ volvulus
7. organ under the stomach that produces insulin and digestive enzymes: pan_____________ pancreas
8. lack of appetite: an___________ anorexia
9. swollen, twisted veins in the rectal region: ____________oids hemorrhoids
10. new connection between two previously unconnected tubes: ana_____________ anastomosis
11. absence of acid in the stomach: a______________ achlorhydria
12. return of solids and fluids to the mouth from the stomach: gastro re_____________ disease gastroesophageal reflux
13. removal of soft tissue hanging from the roof of the mouth: ________________ectomy uvulectomy
14. formation of stones: _________________genesis. lithogenesis
Created by: timelissa71511