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SC2110 Chp 5

Digestive System Combining Forms

Combining FormMeaningTerminology
an/o anus Perianal-
append/o appendix appendectomy-
appendic/o appendix appendicitis-
bucc/o cheek buccal mucosa- A mucosa is a mucous membrane lining cavities or canals that open to the outside of the body.
cec/o cecum cecal-
celi/o belly, abdomen celiac- Abdomin/o and lapar/o also mean abdomen. With combining forms that have the same basic meaning, no rule exists for the proper usage of one or the other. You will learn to recognize each in its proper context.
cheil/o lip cheilosis- Labi/o also means lip.
cholecyst/o gallbladder cholecystectomy- Chol/e = gall, bile.
choledoch/o common bile duct choledochotomy -
col/o colon colostomy- The suffi x -stomy, when used with a combining form for an organ, means an opening to the outside of the body. A stoma is an opening between an organ and the surface of the body
colon/o colon colonic- colonoscopy-
dent/i tooth dentibuccal- odont/o also means tooth
duoden/o duodemum duodenal-
enter/o intestines, usually small intestine enterocolitis- When two combining forms for gastrointestinal organs are in a term, the one for the organ closer to the mouth appears first.
enter/o another example entero enterostomy New opening between 2 previously unconnected parts of the small intestine. This is an anastomosis, which is any surgical connection between 2 parts, such as vessels, ducts, or bowel segments (ana = up, stom = opening, -sis = state
enter/o another example mesentery- The double fold of peritoneum that stretches around organs in the abdomen, mesentery holds the organs in place. It lies in the middle (mes-) ofthe intestines, membrane attaching the intestines 2 the muscle wall at the back of the abdomen
enter/o again another example parenteral- Par (from para-) means apart from in this term. An intravenous line brings parenteral nutrition directly into the bloodstream, bypassing the intestinal tract . Parenteral injections may be subcutaneous or intramuscular as well.
esophag/o esophagus esophageal- Note: Changing the suffi x from -al to -eal softens the fi nal g ( ĕ -s ŏ f- ă -J Ē - ă l).
faci/o face facial
gastr/o stomach gastrostomy-
gingiv/o gums gingivitis-
gloss/o tongue hypoglossal- Lingu/o also means tongue.
hepat/o liver hepatoma- Also called hepatocellular carcinoma.
ile/o ileum ileocecal sphincter- Also called the ileocecal valve. ileitis- ileostomy-
jejun/o jejunum choledochojejunostomy- An anastomosis. gastrojejunostomy- This is part of a gastric bypass procedure
labi/o lip labial- labial-
lapar/o abdomen lapar oscopy A form of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Examples are laparoscopic cholecystectomy and laparoscopic appendectomy.
lingu/o tongue sublingual sublingual-
mandibul/o lower jaw, mandible submandibular-
odont/o tooth orthodontist- Orth/o means straight. periodontist- endodontist- Performs root canal therapy.
palat/o palate palatoplasty- Procedure to repair cleft palate and cleft lip; repair of a cleft palate.
pancreat/o pancreas pancreatitis-
peritone/o peritoneum peritonitis- The e of the root has been dropped in this term.
pharyng/o throat pharyngeal-
proct/o anus and rectum palatopharyngoplasty- Used to treat cases of snoring or sleep apnea caused by obstructions in the throat or nose.
pylor/o pyloric sphincter pyloroplasty-
rect/o rectum rectocele-
sialaden/o salivary gland sialadenitis-
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon sigmoidoscopy-
stomat/o mounth stomatitis-
uvul/o uvula uvulectomy-
SUBSTANCES
amyl/o starch amylase- The suffi x -ase means enzyme.
bil/i gall, bile biliary- The biliary tract includes the organs (liver and gallbladder) and ducts (hepatic, cystic, and common bile ducts) that secrete, store, and empty bile into the duodenum
bilirubin/o bilirubin (bile pigment) hyperbilirubinemia-
chol/e gall, bile cholelithiasis- Lith/o means stone or calculus; -iasis means abnormal condition.
chlorhydr/o hydrochloric acid achlorhydria- Absence of gastric juice is associated with gastric carcinoma.
gluc/o sugar gluconeogenesis- Liver cells make new sugar from fats and proteins.
glyc/o sugar hyperglycemia-
glycogen/o glycogen, animal starch glycogenolysis- Liver cells change glycogen back to glucose when blood sugar levels drop.
lip/o fat, lipid lipoma-
lith/o stone lithogenesis-
prote/o protein protease-
py/o pus pyorrhea- Periodontitis; an advanced stage of periodontal disease (gingivitis).
sial/o saliva, salivary sialolith-
steat/o fat steatorrhea- Improperly digested (malabsorbed) fats will appear in the feces.
SUFFIXES
-ase enzyme lipase- Enzymes speed up chemical reactions. Lipase aids in digestion of fats.In all types of liver disease, enzyme levels may be up, indicating damage to liver cells.Signs and symptoms include malaise, anorexia, hepatomegaly, jaundice, & abdominal pain.
-chezia defecation, elimination of wastes hematochezia- (h ē -m ă -t ō -K Ē -z ē - ă ) Bright red blood is found in the feces.
-iasis abnormal condition choledocholithiasis-
-prandial meal post prandial- Post cibum (p.c.), seen on written prescriptions, also means after meals.
or/o mouth oral- oral- Stomat/o also means mouth.
Created by: timelissa71511