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SC2110 Chp 5

Digestive System Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Absorption Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream.
Amino Acids Small building blocks of proteins (like links in a chain), released when proteins are digested.
Amylase Enzyme (-ase) secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands to digest starch (amyl/o).
Anus Terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body.
Appendix Blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant [RLQ]). It literally means hanging (pend/o) onto (ap-, which is a form of ad-).
Bile Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up (emulsifi es) large fat globules. Bile originally was called gall (Latin bilis , meaning gall or anger), probably because it has a bitter taste.
Bilirubin Pigment released by the liver in bile.
Bowel Intestine
Canine Teeth Pointed, dog-like teeth (canine means pertaining to dog) next to theincisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth.
Cecum First part of the large intestine.
Colon Portion of the large intestine consisting of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments.
Common Bile Duct Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. Also called the choledochus.
Defecation Elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus.
Deglutition Swallowing.
Dentin Primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.
Digestion Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms.
Duodenum First part of the small intestine. Duo = 2, den = 10; the duodenum measures 12 inches long
Elimination Act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces.
Emulsification Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
Enamel Hard, outermost layer of a tooth.
Enzyme Chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes break down complex foods to simpler substances. Enzymes are given names that end in -ase.
Esophagus Tube connecting the throat to the stomach. Eso- means inward; phag/o means swallowing.
Fatty Acids Substances produced when fats are digested. Fatty acids are a category of lipids
Feces Solid wastes; stool.
Gallbladder Small sac under the liver; stores bile. HINT: gallbladder is one word!
Glucose Simple sugar.
Glycogen Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells.
Hydrochloric Acid Substance produced in the stomach; necessary for digestion of food.
Ileum Third part of the small intestine; from the Greek eilos, meaning twisted. When the abdomen was viewed at autopsy, the intestine appeared twisted, and the ileum often was an area of obstruction.
Incisor Any one of four front teeth in the dental arch.
Insulin Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver.
Jejunum Second part of the small intestine. The Latin jejunus means empty; this part of the intestine was always empty when a body was examined after death.
Lipase Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.
Liver Large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. The liver secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; destroys worn-out red blood cells; and filters out toxins. The normal adult liver weighs about 2 1/2 to 3 pounds.
Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. Also called cardiac sphincter.
Mastication Chewing
Molar Teeth Sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch. Premolar teeth are the fourth and fifth teeth, before the molars.
Palate Roof of the mouth. The hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat.
Pancreas Organ behind the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods).
Papillae (singular: papilla) Small projections on the tongue. A papilla is a nipple-like elevation.
Parotid Gland Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear. Note the literal meaning of parotid (par- = near; ot/o = ear).
Peristalsis Rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, peristalsis moves the contents through different rates: stomach, 0.5-2 hours; small intestine, 2-6 hours; and colon, 6-72 hours. Peri means surrounding: stalsis is constriction
Pharynx Throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose.
Portal Vein Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.
Protease Enzyme that digests protein.
Pulp Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels.
Pyloric Sphincter Ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum. From the Greek pyloros , meaning gatekeeper. It is normally closed, but opens when a wave of peristalsis passes over it
Pylorus Distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum.
Rectum Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus.
Rugae Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach.
Saliva Digestive juice produced by salivary glands. Saliva contains the enzyme amylase, which begins the digestion of starch to sugar.
Salivary Glands Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands.
Sigmoid Colon Fourth and last, S -shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum.
Sphincter Circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening.
Stomach Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. The stomach ’ s parts are the fundus (proximal section), body (middle section), and antrum (distal section).
Triglycerides Fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol. Triglycerides (fats) are a subgroup of lipids. Another type of lipid is cholesterol.
Uvula Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate. The Latin uva means bunch of grapes.
Villi ( singular : villus) Microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.
Created by: timelissa71511
 

 



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