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Unit 9

Industrial Revolution

Edward Jenner Smallpox vaccination
capitalism widespread dissatisfaction with poor working conditions and the unequal distribution of wealth in society. Regular wages led to the development of a small middle class.
England Industrial Revolution began in 1750 in England, while the United States was still a colony of Britain, the Industrial Revolution was rapidly introduced to what would become the United States
labor unions Formed because of awful working conditions of the Industrial Revolution. Worker-organized strikes to demand better wages and working conditions. Lobbied for laws to improve, demanded worker's rights
factory work Industrialization and mechanization became common, family-based cottage industries were displaced by the factory system. Harsh working conditions and competition with women and children. Women and children were hired to keep costs low
Scramble for Africa Demand for raw materials to fuel industrialization led to a new Age of Imperialism. European nations had to seek out new colonies, and turned their attention to Africa. Rugged terrain, unnavigable rivers, and malaria were no longer an issue.
protectorates countries which remained "independent", but were under the "protection" of another country
James Watt Steam engine - revolutionized travel in Western Europe. People were able to travel more efficiently with steam railway and steamboats. Steam was also used to power the machines in factories
James Hargreaves Spinning Jenny - creation of Textile Factories. Women began to work out of the home rather than in "cottage industries."
Henry Bessemer Process for making steel - process to create steel from iron, which produced steel cheaply and efficiently, made it possible for engineers to envision transcontinental railroads, buildings, and cars. Age of Iron to the Age of Steel
Eli Whitney Cotton gin - machine that quickly separates cotton fibers from their seeds, reduced the labor of removing seeds. Cotton growing became so profitable for the planters that it greatly increased their demand for land and slave labor
Louis Pasteur Discovery of bacteria
Karl Marx Wrote the Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital in response to the injustices of capitalism. Believed the government should redistribute wealth to eliminate social classes and inequality
factory towns Owners of mines and factories exercised considerable control over the lives of their laborers, those involved in the steel & coalmine industry often would build company towns. Trapping the workers, cycling money
Zulu Wars Zulu people of Africa resisted European colonization through a series of wars
Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations. He promoted the idea of a free market
colonies areas in which Europeans settled and recreated European institutions and power structures. The area colonized was no longer an independent country- it became a possession of the mother country
Boxer Rebellion Chinese viewed Christianity as a threat to their traditional culture
sphere of influence areas carved out of an independent country that allowed another nation to dominate trade in the given area
cottage industry Women began to work out of the home rather than in "cottage industries"
women's sufferage Women entered the workplace as cheap labor. Many women felt they deserved equal recognition with men politically as well. This belief led women of this era to begin to demand their right to vote and the women's suffrage movement began to grow
socialism and communism Government should take an active role in economy to redistribute wealth to eliminate social classes and social and economic inequality. Private entrepreneurs and consumers driving the economy, the government would control the economy
middle class Better medical care, a stable income and improved transportation allowed for public transportation meant many people saw an increased standard of living leading to the growth of a middle class
Hindu Nationalism Indian Hindu identity was challenged by Christian influence
Enclosure Movement Land that had been left open for peasants was rapidly fenced off by wealthy farmers. Farms became larger and therefore more productive and the efficiency of agricultural production increased
Wealth of Nations written by Adam Smith. Supply and demand would regulate prices and wages. Government take a hands-off approach. Instead private entrepreneurs and their consumers would be the driving force of the economy
The Communist Manifesto written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in response to the injustices of capitalism.
Created by: MusngiJD21
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